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This book describes the features in structural imaging of the most important pediatric brain tumors with the aim of enabling radiologists to make the correct differential diagnosis and to provide the pediatric oncologist with all the imaging information relevant to further management. The opening chapter is devoted to the complex subject of pediatric trials at the national and international levels and the importance of staging for stratification, differential treatment, and outcome. A general imaging protocol for children with brain tumors is presented, and individual chapters then identify key points for the differential diagnosis and staging of posterior fossa tumors, low- and high-grade gliomas, germ cell tumors, and craniopharyngiomas. The relevance of aspects such as tumor site and age to diagnosis is explained, and pitfalls associated with meningeal dissemination and treatment-related complications mimicking recurrence are highlighted. The importance of ensuring comparability of follow-up by use of standard MR (or CT) imaging is emphasized. In drawing on the lessons gained both from pediatric trials and from the author's own experience, this book will be invaluable for all radiologists.
This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of juvenile angiofibroma, with contributions from all relevant specialties. Starting with a brief introduction to the history, etiology and relevant anatomy, the book goes on to discuss the pathology, clinical features and treatment of this disease in depth, concluding with a summary of current controversies. Juvenile Angiofibroma is aimed at a global audience of otolaryngologists, endoscopists, head and neck surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and geneticists.
This book introduces readers to the biology of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and emphasizes the necessity and importance of targeting LSCs in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. It addresses the role of leukemia stem cells in different leukemia diseases and molecular signatures, as well as the metabolic and epigenetic regulation of leukemia stem cell function. With regard to solid tumors, a significant number of blood cancers are believed to be derived from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which are responsible for disease progression, relapse and drug resistance. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed by focusing on the complete eradication of LSCs. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for graduate students and scientists in the fields of cell biology and cancer research etc.
This book is a pocket guide to the science and practice of PET/CT imaging of gynecological malignancies. The scientific principles of PET/CT, the radiopharmaceuticals used in the context of gynecological cancers, the role of PET/CT in these patients, the characteristic PET/CT findings, and limitations and pitfalls are all clearly described. In addition, information is provided on clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, pathology, management, and radiological imaging. The book is published within the Springer series Clinicians' Guides to Hybrid Imaging, which is aimed at referring clinicians, nuclear medicine/radiology physicians, radiographers/technologists, and nurses who routinely work in nuclear medicine and participate in multidisciplinary meetings. Compiled under the auspices of the British Nuclear Medicine Society, the series is the joint work of many colleagues and professionals worldwide who share a common vision and purpose in promoting and supporting nuclear medicine as an important imaging specialty for the diagnosis and management of oncological and non-oncological conditions.
This text properly considers the most recent and relevant advances in molecular RB of GB, taking into account the related topics of pathobiology, and underscores the most promising translational perspectives from the preclinical to the clinical domain. Section I (From Bedside to Bench) discusses conditions associated with RT resistance of GB and the consequent RB hints, technology improvements intended to overcome RT-resistance of GB, mathematical modeling of RB parameters from clinical studies, the present impact of molecular prognostic factors in therapy of GB, and RT tolerance of normal brain. Section II (Preclinical Research and Pathobiology Topics) presents the traditional and mechanistic/molecular approaches to RB of GB, genetic and epigenetic studies on GB, issues of cell-death pathways, stem-like cells, invasiveness, tumor microenvironment, hypoxia, mi-RNA manipulations, and nanoparticle technology. Section III (Translational Perspectives) presents RB issues related to molecular profiling and classification of GB as frames of reference for clinical studies, translational perspectives of gene therapy, evolving protocols based on pre-clinical data and large data-bases and ontologic models. Radiobiology of Glioblastoma: Recent Advances and Related Pathobiology will be of great value to pathologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists as well as basic researchers and clinical investigators.
This book describes the various contributions of positron emission tomography (PET) to the management of Hodgkin lymphoma and considers key issues in its use. A full explanation of the value of PET in disease staging and restaging is followed by discussion of its role in guiding individualized, response-adapted therapy in both early and advanced disease based on assessment of treatment sensitivity. Further chapters explore in detail the current application of PET for determination of tumor metabolic volume and planning of involved field radiotherapy. The book concludes by discussing PET scan reporting in clinical practice and the rules that have now been formally set following a number of international workshops designed to develop standard reporting criteria based on expert agreement. The authors are leading authorities who adopt an interdisciplinary approach in covering the most important aspects of the use of PET in Hodgkin lymphoma in a readily understandable way. PET Scan in Hodgkin Lymphoma will be of value to oncologists, hematologists, medical physicists, radiotherapists, and nuclear medicine specialists.
This monograph equips clinicians with the knowledge required to detect oral cancer at the earliest possible stage while simultaneously inspiring researchers to work on novel methods of detection. All the methods employed in the oral cancer context are considered, from simple ones like oral screening to more complex emerging optical methods and biomarker identification strategies. Individual chapters focus on conventional oral screening and application of vital stains, optical methods like white light based fluorescence-reflectance imaging, narrow band imaging, direct-oral-microscopy, and more advanced methods like optical coherence tomography, an in-vivo optical biopsy technique, and photo-acoustic imaging that allows visualization of deeper tissue changes. Novel electrical methods like bio-impedance assessment, occult biophysical methods like crystallization test, and the most promising salivary biomarkers and point-of-care opportunities are covered. Helpful information is also provided on essential topics including, oral potentially malignant disorders, biological aspects and molecular mechanisms underlying oral cancer progression, global epidemiology, concept of diagnostic delays, traditional imaging, and classic histopathology and microscopic features. The newer techniques are currently of active research interest, and can soon become powerful chair-side tools with potential to reduce diagnostic delays and improve survival.
Lung cancer is the most common and most lethal malignancy world-wide, causing 1.4 million diseases every year. Half of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are diagnosed at such an advanced stage that a cure cannot be considered a realistic aim, and over 75% of cases selected for a curative treatment eventually relapse within five years. The 5-year overall survival rates are less than 20% for NSCLC patients. As a disease, NSCLC demands our maximum abilities as researchers, physicians, and care-givers, and a continuous updating of our knowledge. Conventional chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC does not provide a great long-term benefit in terms of survival. Accordingly, a different therapeutic approach has to be explored. The human epidermal growth factor family of surface receptors (HER) became a critical target to be investigated. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in over 80% of non-small cell lung cancer. The presence of sensitising conformational mutations in the EGFR increases the efficacy of modern tyrosine kinase inhibitors against its inner portion (EGFR-TKI). The EGFR-TKIs greatly prolong disease-free survival of those patients harbouring sensitising EGFR mutations, and have been suggested as an essential tool in the therapeutic repertoire. This volume aims to serve as an updated compendium of biology and applications of anti-EGFR therapies, and offers a look at the future of anti-HER therapy in lung cancer. This volume exhaustively reviews and discusses: 1) the nature and significance of activating EGFR mutations, and those clinical and pathological phenomena related to HER alterations; 2) the most common laboratory methodologies to study EGFR, and the future of HER analysis; 3) the right time to analyse EGFR mutations and evolutionary changes in the HER; 4) EGFR-TKI application in unselected and selected NSCLC patients; 5) upcoming anti-HER therapies; 6) the eventual role of anti-HER therapies in early NSCLC; 7) mechanisms of acquired resistance to anti-HER therapies, and experimental and conventional strategies to bypass them; 8) the application of anti-HER therapies in other malignancies. This book is an indispensable handbook for all those specialists devoted to the diagnosis and management of lung cancer.
Oral, Head and Neck Oncology and Reconstructive Surgery is the first oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) text to provide you with a system for managing adult oral, head and neck cancers and reconstructive cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Using an evidence-based approach to the management and treatment of a wide variety of clinical conditions, the extensive experience of the author and contributors in head and neck/cranio-maxillofacial surgery and oncology are highlighted throughout the text. This includes computer aided surgical simulation, intraoperative navigation, robotic surgery, endoscopic surgery, microvascular surgery, molecular science, and tumor immunology. In addition, high quality photos and illustrations are accompanied by videos of surgical procedures that are easily accessible on mobile devices. Management protocols and outcomes assessment provide clear guidelines for managing problems related to adult head and neck oncology and reconstructive surgery. State-of-the art guidance by recognized experts details current techniques as well as technological advances in head and neck/cranio-maxillofacial surgery and oncology. Evidence-based content details the latest diagnostic and therapeutic options for treating a wide-variety of clinical problems with an emphasis on surgical technique and outcomes. Multidisciplinary approach reflects best practices in managing head and neck oncology and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. 900 highly detailed images clearly demonstrate pathologies and procedures. Designed for the modern classroom which lets you access important information anywhere through mobile tablets and smart phones.
Helps researchers in proteomics and oncology work together to understand, prevent, and cure cancer
Proteomic data is increasingly important to understanding the origin and progression of cancer; however, most oncologic researchers who depend on proteomics for their studies do not collect the data themselves. As a result, there is a knowledge gap between scientists, who devise proteomic techniques and collect the data, and the oncologic researchers, who are expected to interpret and apply proteomic data. Bridging the gap between proteomics and oncology research, this book explains how proteomic technology can be used to address some of the most important questions in cancer research.
"Proteomic Applications in Cancer Detection and Discovery "enables readers to understand how proteomic data is acquired and analyzed and how it is interpreted. Author Timothy Veenstra has filled the book with examples--many based on his own firsthand research experience--that clearly demonstrate the application of proteomic technology in oncology research, including the discovery of novel biomarkers for different types of cancers.
The book begins with a brief introduction to systems biology, explaining why cancer is a systems biology disease. Next, it covers such topics as: Mass spectrometry in cancer researchApplication of proteomics to global phosphorylation analysisSearch for biomarkers in biofluidsRise and fall of proteomic patterns for cancer diagnosticsEmergence of protein arraysRole of proteomics in personalized medicine
The final chapter is dedicated to the future prospects of proteomics in cancer research.
By guiding readers through the latest proteomic technologies and their applications in cancer research, "Proteomic Applications in Cancer Detection and Discovery" enhances the ability of researchers in proteomics and researchers in oncology to collaborate in order to better understand cancer and develop strategies to prevent and treat it.
The second edition of this text presents an overview of the most recent developments in this area including clinical presentation, etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis. The rationale for various therapies, including transplantation, is discussed and tissue diagnosis (its pitfalls and strategies for avoiding them) and laboratory support are included. The involvement of all major organ systems including renal/genitourinary, cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, peripheral nerve/central nervous system, soft tissue, skin, lymph node/spleen and bone marrow pathology is also covered. Amyloid and Related Disorders, Second Edition will be invaluable to specialized and general pathologists as well as cytopathologists. Other medical professionals may also benefit from this concise update on the systemic amyloidoses.
There are few publications about drug interactions in chemotherapy and even less about pediatric oncology treatment. For this reason, the present book is intended to offer guidelines about drug interactions for physicians, pharmacists and the other healthcare professionals involved in the chemotherapy of pediatric patients. In this book the reader will have access to a primary introduction for the major diseases in pediatric oncology, followed by the major therapeutic protocols. Following that, the most important drug interactions in pediatric oncology treatment are presented and discussed in detail. Finally, important topics such as Drug-Food Interactions are addressed. Drug Therapy and Interactions in Pediatric Oncology focuses in great detail on the drug interactions in Pediatric Oncohematology and will be an indispensable resource in daily practice for a wide range of health providers.
This book is a cutting-edge resource that provides clinicians with the up-to-date practical knowledge required in order to manage SCC patients optimally. It summarizes newly available information relating to the definition of high-risk SCC, its pathophysiologic underpinnings, and its management. New prognostic information and staging systems are summarized that enable high-risk tumors to be defined more precisely than ever before. Many helpful tips are provided on the practical management of challenging cases, including multiple tumors/field cancerization, high-risk tumors, nodal metastases, and unresectable disease. The authors are all acknowledged experts in the emerging field of high-risk and advanced SCC.
This user-friendly book is a practical guide to the diagnosis of testicular tumors and rare tumors of the penis. It describes and illustrates pathology findings for each tumor type and provides information on clinical features, differential diagnosis, tumor staging, and prognostic factors. Since an effective dialogue between urologists and pathologists is essential for optimal patient care, due attention is paid to such aspects as the role of frozen section in the management of small testicular nodules and the accurate reporting of testicular and penile neoplasms to ensure that all knowledge required for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making is available. The key information is presented in straightforward tables for ease of reference. This book, which includes more than 250 full-color photos, is not only a valuable resource for surgical pathologists and pathology residents but also an important reference tool for all clinicians who care for patients with genitourinary tract tumors.
This book reviews the standard diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and examines ongoing research developments in the field. The importance of appropriate prognostic stratification, taking into account recent advances in understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MDS, is explained, and both established and novel treatment approaches are discussed in depth. The coverage includes, for example, the use of erythropoietic stimulating agents, iron chelation therapy, the immunomodulator lenalidomide, hypomethylating agents such as azacitidine, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myelodysplastic syndromes are heterogeneous and complex hematologic disorders ranging from indolent conditions to forms approaching the aggressiveness of acute myeloid leukemia. The diversity of MDS gives rise to challenges in diagnosis and clinical decision making, and the highly variable clinical course necessitates a risk-adapted treatment strategy and the application of disease-specific therapies. Hematologists, oncologists, and other interested clinicians will find this book to be an invaluable source of information on diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and treatment selection.
This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art review of pediatric oncology. The text covers relevant concepts in molecular biology and addresses technical principles, applications, challenges, and integration of current and emerging genomic and molecular methods in the diagnosis and personalized management of childhood cancers. The text also discusses a wide array of pediatric neoplasms in the context of molecular pathology in a concise and understandable manner, with focus on their molecular pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, classification, molecular diagnosis, and approaches to personalized care. Written by experts in the field, Precision Molecular Pathology of Neoplastic Pediatric Diseases serves as a valuable resource for pathologists, pediatric oncologists, trainees and researchers with an interest in pediatric and molecular pathology.
When a patient is diagnosed with a gynecological malignancy, she and her doctors must make urgent, high-risk decisions about her course of treatment. In selecting an appropriate plan of care, physicians must weigh the patient's individual needs, the tumor's specific characteristics, and the treatment's potential side effects. Because there is no one-size-fits-all treatment solution, a plethora of clinical trials have been performed on ovarian cancer patients, but clinicians may struggle to keep up with this ever-growing body of research. Collecting and synthesizing research findings from a wide array of medical journal articles and book chapters, Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer provides physicians with an invaluable resource. Gynecologic oncologist Christine S. Walsh systematically outlines each of the seminal Phase III trials that have shaped the treatment of ovarian cancers, detailing the rationale for the trial, the patient population studied, treatment delivery methods, efficacy, toxicity, and trial conclusions. She provides a clear overview of established treatments, as well as still-controversial experimental approaches. The first book to organize this cutting-edge research into an easy-to-use reference, Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer should help medical personnel at all levels provide their patients with the highest standard of care.
This book comprehensively reviews the potential of focal therapy and discusses why the changing face of prostate cancer warrants a change in the way we treat men with the disease. It deals with the mechanisms by which disease can be localized within the gland and then the different technologies used for focal ablation. Bringing together eminent contributors in one accessible reference, this book introduces focal therapy to all urologists, oncologists, and radiologists who are involved in the treatment of men with prostate cancer.
Endoanal and endorectal ultrasound represents considerable progress in the field of anorectal imaging. Its importance in the staging of rectal and anal cancer, in identifying perianasto- motic neoplastic recurrences, in defining acute and chronic suppurative disease and in assessing sphincteral anatomical integrity, is now a confirmed reality. The evidence provided by endoanal and endorectal ultrasonography guides the colorectal surgeon in his choice among the various therapeutic approaches and helps in assessing the effects of the treatments applied. The great flexibility and high degree of reliability make this exploratory method an indispensable tool at all stages of the clinical course in the majority of patients with anorectal problems, including the fundamental follow-up stage. The publication of this excellent volume on intraanal and intrarectal ultrasonog- raphy is therefore to be appreciated, especially since it is in the form of an atlas. As we are dealing with imaging, it is particularly appropriate that it is the images that tell the story. Like all important things, this volume does not come out of nothing. It is the result of many years of skilled work by Drs. G.A. Santoro and G. Di Falco and is based on the experience of internationally renowned professional experts. The ten sections of the atlas begin with general information on ultrasonography, gradually progressing to the technical problems of the method and the aspects rela- tive to anorectal tumors.This last section leads to a review of traditional and mod- ern therapeutic possibilities.
Johns Hopkins Patients' Guide To Lung Cancer Is A Concise, Easy-To-Follow "How To" Guide That Puts You On The Path To Wellness By Explaining Lung Cancer Treatment From Start To Finish. It Guides You Through The Overwhelming Maze Of Treatment Decisions, Simplifies The Complicated Schedule That Lies Ahead, And Performs The Task Of Putting Together Your Plan Of Care In Layman's Terms. Empower Yourself With Accurate, Understandable Information That Will Give You The Ability To Confidently Participate In The Decision Making About Your Care And Treatment.
This volume presents the scientific advances and current status of our understanding of precision medicine for common diseases in gynecology and obstetrics. Standard treatments based on clinical guidelines in the field have been established for decades, and those are essential to daily clinical practice. Meanwhile comprehensive genomic and genetic analyses have led to personalized medicine by precise clinical and genomic approaches. This book is organized into two major parts, gynecology and obstetrics, and the chapters in each part give a clear exposition of the current knowledge and the future perspectives for the treatment of various gynecological cancers, maternal disorders, and other diseases that affect female patients. Topics on novel treatment strategy with the application of molecular targeted drugs, immunotherapy, and prevention medicine are also covered. This collection benefits not only experienced gynecologists and obstetricians, but also young physicians who would like to begin clinical and basic research on diseases in women, researchers in basic medicine, and all medical oncologists who are involved in gynecological cancers.
The subject matter of volume 1 of the 2-volumes-handbook focusses on leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial sarcoma and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma of the whole female genitalia. A separate extensive chapter is devoted to the variants of leiomyoma (angio-, lipo-, cotyledonoid, cellular, mitotically active, epithelioid and myxoid leiomyoma, leiomyoma with bizarre nuclei), atypical smooth muscle tumors (smooth muscle tumors with uncertain malignant potential), and disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, benign metastasizing leiomyoma, and intravenous leiomyomatosis. Furthermore, endometrial stromal tumors - endometrial stromal nodules, endometrial stromal tumor with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE), uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT) - and similar tumors are described in detail. The book provides a description at length of the epidemiology, etiology, pathological anatomy, prognosis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, imaging and comprehensive therapy of each primary, relapsed, and metastasized tumor including surgery, chemo-, hormone- and radio- and targeted therapy. Another chapter is devoted to the prevention of subjecting sarcomas to inadequate surgical therapeutic measures under the assumed diagnosis of leiomyoma, and includes a diagnostic-therapeutic flowchart with a diagnostic score. The book aims to identify and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance. The listed tumor entities also constitute a particular diagnostic challenge for pathologists that contains numerous pitfalls and difficulties. This book, therefore, addresses gynecologists and pathologists in both clinical and private practice, but also surgeons and hemato-oncologists.
Squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (SCCHN), also known as head and neck cancers (HNC) encompass malignancies of the oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx and pharynx, and are diagnosed in over 500,000 patients worldwide each year, accounting for 5% of all malignancies. It is estimated that approximately 50,000 patients develop head and neck cancer annually in the United States, of whom approximately 50% succumb to this cancer. For most cases of SCCHN, treatment is multimodal, often combining surgery or irradiation with chemotherapy; even successfully treated patients frequently experience durable and severe side effects. Improving cure rates and reducing chronic morbidity are urgent clinical needs for head and neck cancer. However, in contrast to cancer types such as breast or prostate that have been much studied and have well-defined biology, until recently, relatively few researchers investigated the molecular basis of HNC, making it difficult to design targeted treatments with better efficacy and less debilitating side effects. This volume will provide an overview of the factors contributing to disease pathogenesis, including the recognition of discrete molecular subtypes with distinct etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. This volume will familiarize the reader with the critical signaling pathways and oncogenic drivers for HNC. It will outline the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative disease, and how these differences affect treatment choice and outcome. The book will emphasize developments in the past five years, including the growing understanding of the genomic and epigenomic features of the disease based on analysis of next generation sequencing (NGS) data, and timely topics such as the analysis of HNC stem cell populations, non-coding mRNAs, and inflammatory response. It will address exciting new therapeutic approaches such as the use of immunotherapies to treat HNC patients. Overall, the book will provide the reader with current understanding of the biology and treatment of the disease, and describe timely questions that will guide future research aimed at controlling and curing this disease.
Focus on Cancer Research
The role of genetics is becoming increasingly important in all aspects of healthcare and particularly in the field of cancer care. Genetics for Health Professionals in Cancer Care: From Principles to Practice equips health professionals with the knowledge and skills required for all aspects of managing cancer family history. This includes taking an accurate cancer family history and drawing a family tree; understanding cancer biology, basic cancer genetics and the genes involved in hereditary breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, gastric and related gynaecological cancers and rare cancer predisposing syndromes; assessing cancer risk and communicating risk information; early detection and risk reducing measures available for those at increased risk and managing individuals with hereditary cancer. Drawing on experiences of health professionals, Genetics for Health Professionals in Cancer Care discusses the challenges raised and provides practical advice and insight into what happens when a patient is referred for genetic counselling and genetic testing, including the psychological, social and ethical issues faced by individuals and families with and at risk of hereditary cancer. The book also provides practical guidance on setting up a cancer family history clinic in primary and secondary care. Genetics for Health Professionals in Cancer Care is essential reading for healthcare professionals working with cancer patients and their families, and is an ideal reference text for non-specialists working in cancer genetics.
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