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The purpose of this book is to improve diagnostic yields of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, because those procedures can depict nonspecific findings that may not lead to a proper diagnosis. Another reason for the publication was recognition of the difficulty in distinguishing enteroscopic findings of ulcerative colitis from those of Crohn's disease. From a practical point of view, it is important to observe endoscopic pictures first, then to compare the images of other modalities, and finally to compare macroscopic pictures of resected specimens. For that reason, a large number of well-depicted examples of small intestinal lesions were assembled to clarify differences among small intestinal lesions that appear to exhibit similar findings and morphologies. Comparisons with radiographic findings comprise another important element in diagnosis. There are limitations in endoscopic observations of gross lesions of the small intestine, with its many convolutions. In Japan, many institutions still practice double- contrast imaging, which provides beautiful results. Because a single disorder may exhibit variations, this volume includes multiple depictions of the same disorders. Also included are lesions in active and inactive phases, as both appearances are highly likely to be encountered simultaneously in clinical practice. The number of illustrated findings therefore has been limited to strictly selected cases.
Co-edited and written by an interdisciplinary team of experts in oncology and cardiology, this book is a clinically useful resource on these overlapping topics: * Cardiac complications in patients receiving cancer therapy * The treatment of cancer in patients with cardiovascular disease * The treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with cancer When relevant to medical practice, epidemiology and basic science are also included in the discussion and each chapter is written by an oncologist and a cardiologist. Additionally, the chapters follow a similar format to make the book truly interdisciplinary, user-friendly, and clinically applicable to specialists and non-specialists who care for patients with both cancer and cardiovascular disease.
This comprehensive reference expounds the current state of hormone therapy and castration resistance of prostate cancer (PCa). Previously, the incidence of PCa in Asian countries was relatively low, but it has been increasing dramatically in recent years. Although most of the new cases are diagnosed in early stages, a significant proportion of patients receive hormone therapy for metastatic disease or for relapse after local treatment. Thus the situation has gradually changed toward earlier and longer use of hormone therapy. The malignancy finally forms castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) despite the lack of testicular androgen. With advances in understanding of the molecular basis of hormone dependence and CRPC, many new androgen receptor-targeted agents have emerged. During the last decade, much evidence on hormone therapy has been accumulated in Japan. Interestingly, some of these findings are different from those reported from Western countries, suggesting ethnic variation in the outcome of hormone therapy. In the chapters of this book, expert authors provide exhaustive interpretations of the evidence recently reported from Japan and provide important Asian perspectives on hormone therapy for PCa. This work benefits not only Asian urologists but also their Western counterparts and all physicians and medical personnel who are involved in the treatment of PCa.
From the Roots explores one woman's decision to find grace, hilarity, and ultimately joy, in the worst of circumstances. As a result of surviving childhood bone cancer twice, Marsha endures long-term side effects that include the amputation of her lower left leg, the loss of her bladder and kidneys, congestive heart failure, a kidney transplant, and scars galore. A rebel to the core, her defiance in the face of disease, doctors, establishment, insincere people, and anyone who would steal her joy or life force offers moments of profound depth and humor. In nearly every chapter, Marsha has her dukes up, ready to fight for her spirit. Rather than another tell all about a "girl who is sick and mad about it," this book seeks real resolution and most importantly spiritual meaning to the overwhelming losses she is describing. The book is arranged in experimental triptychs, with poetry and prose cushioning each story. The triptychs include Spirit, Story, and Poem/Lists. The concept of three in one is woven throughout. The book is an elegant pursuit of life purpose living with loss there are no pat answers, preachy messages, or "magical triumphant wake up calls." Rather, there is a steady flow of an inner knowing that grace runs through Marsha's life. She sees it, she acknowledges it, and she dances with it. From her early childhood diagnoses of Ewing sarcoma (still a cancer with a high death rate) to her adventures in her twenties traveling through Europe as an overly romantic amputee with a urostomy pouch; her thirties and early forties spent on dialysis as she watched other women grow careers and families; her marriage and subsequent divorce and her hilarious chats with God about her sex life this is an inspiring, juicy, laugh out loud, yet elegant story. Disappointment happens to all of us. Marsha decides that her right to joy and happiness outweighs the perception the world places on her about her purpose and her losses. This book is a timeless story of witnessing the unfolding of one's spiritual petals, to see one reach unflinchingly for the sun, despite injuries to its roots, lack of watering, or damage to its leaves.
This book provides essential information on the epidemiology, molecular and genetic features, anti-CCR4 antibody therapy and a nationwide study of transplantation on human T-leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). This rare but important disease has restricted endemic areas and distinct clinical features such as a high frequency of hypercalcemia, strong predisposition to infection and poor response to chemotherapy, aspects which set ATL apart from other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Given the small number of patients, enrollment in clinical trials has not been feasible, and establishing treatment standard has been difficult but new evidence, such as results of nationwide studies on transplantation, have shown new insights and potential treatments. Based on recent evidence, the book presents new treatment methods for ATL and infection prevention of HTLV-1, enabling clinicians, researchers and post-docs specializing in hematology and virology to gain a valuable overview of the disease.
This book addresses the current concepts in tissue acquisition, diagnosis, and classification of mediastinal lesions in small biopsies including cytology. Examples of mediastinal diseases that are either more common, more challenging to diagnose, or have a differential diagnosis that is important and might require different modes of treatment are highlighted. The knowledge of some key morphologic features and immunohistochemical pitfalls will be helpful for the practicing pathologist to tackle this challenge. The general workup of a mediastinal biopsy and the workup of major disease groups in mediastinal pathology which the general pathologist should be familiar with is discussed. Morphologic and, if applicable, immunophenotypic and molecular features that can help to distinguish these disease entities are highlighted. Furthermore, the reader will learn about the pertinent clinical implications of the diseases. Mediastinal Lesions: Diagnostic Pearls for Interpretation of Small Biopsies and Cytology will be a reference guide for pathologists, pathologists-in-training, and allied professionals, including oncologists, pulmonologists, surgeons, and radiologists.
Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is the most common complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Because of the protracted clinical course of chronic GVHD, transplant centers and hematology/oncology offices are inadequately equipped to manage these immuno-incompetent patients with a multi-system disorder. Practitioners need to be able to recognize and effectively manage chronic GVHD as a late effect of more than half of allogenic transplantations. The text is oriented for the clinician, with chapters covering staging, organ site and system-specific manifestations, treatment options, and supportive care. Drs. Georgia B. Vogelsang and Steven Z. Pavletic have been pioneers in the recognition of the multi-organ complexity of this disease and have gathered the input of a variety of subspecialist physicians for this book. This book fills the gap in practical literature on chronic GVHD, providing a comprehensive, up-to-date, and clinically relevant resource for anyone who deals with cancer patients post-transplant.
This book intends to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the newest techniques in minimally invasive liver surgery. The treatment of liver diseases comprises a significant component of the practice of any general surgeon working either in the academic, general and community hospitals. With the rapid expansion of knowledge and technology also the liver has been approached laparoscopically in a few specialized centers with well recognized advantages for the patients. Now this large amount of experience will be made universally available through this book. After a concise description of the main tools and technology necessary to carry out a safe laparoscopic and/or robot-assisted liver surgery, details of operative techniques will be illustrated. Each chapter will consist of an introduction, a summary of the indications and contraindications of specific operative procedures and a detailed description of each surgical procedure, including the potential complications of both the surgery and the postoperative care. A special effort will be done to provide informative and accurate illustrations and pictures, that will be completed by the DVD containing the movies illustrating the technical procedures performed by the leading European liver surgeons.
Due to the increasing number of digital mammograms and the advent of new kinds of three-dimensional x-ray and other forms of medical imaging, mammography is undergoing a dramatic change. To meet their responsibilities, medical physicists must constantly renew their knowledge of advances in medical imaging or radiation therapy, and must be prepared to function at the intersection of these two fields. Physics of Mammographic Imaging gives an overview on the current role and future potential of new alternatives to mammography in the context of clinical need, complementary approaches, and ongoing research.
This book provides comprehensive coverage on the fundamentals of image formation, image interpretation, analysis, and modeling. It discusses the use of mammographic imaging in the detection, diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of breast cancer. Expert authors give a balanced summary of core topics such as digital mammography, contrast-enhanced mammography, stereomammography, breast tomosynthesis, and breast CT. The book highlights the use of mammographic imaging with complementary breast imaging modalities such as ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear medicine techniques. It discusses critical issues such as computer-aided diagnosis, perception, and quality assurance.
This is an exciting time in the development of medical imaging, with many new technologies poised to make a substantial impact on breast cancer care. This book will help researchers and students get up to speed on crucial developments and contribute to future advances in the field.
This book aims to provide scientists with tools and well-researched protocols to enable their research and to facilitate further progress in this common leukemia. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Methods and Protocols aims to accelerate research on chronic lymphocytic leukemia and further improvements in patient outcomes.
This book was prepared as extension of author's accidental discoveries on experimental models of acute and chronic ocular inflammatory diseases that were established at the University of Pennsylvania in 1980's. Analyses of original data suggest a series of first evidence for direct link between inflammation and developmental phases of immune dysfunction in multistep tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. The only evidence presented on initial events for interactions and synergies between activated host and recruiting cells toward tumorigenesis. Effective immunity was defined as balance between two highly regulated and biologically opposing arms, Yin and Yang of acute inflammation, an amazingly precise signal communications between immune and non-immune systems requiring differential bioenergetics. Unresolved inflammation is a common denominator mapping aging process and induction of `mild', `moderate' or `severe' immune disorders including cancers. Our knowledge of the fascinating biology of immunity in health or chronic diseases is fragmentary, chaotic and confusing, particularly for cancer science. Lack of progress in curing majority of chronic diseases or cancer is primarily due to the fact that scientists work on isolated molecules/cells or topics that are funded and promoted by decision makers in medical/cancer establishment. Despite existence of over 25 million articles on cancer-related topics, cancer biology and cure remain mysteries to be solved. After a century of cancer research, the failure rates of therapies for solid tumors are 90% (+/-5). Current reductionist views on cancer science are irresponsible, shut-gun approaches and create chaos. Outcomes are loss of millions of precious lives and economic drain to society. Very little is known about initial events that disturb effective immunity whose function is to monitor and arrest growth of cancerous cells or defend against other external or internal hazardous agents that threaten body's survival. The author demonstrates the serious need for systematic understanding of how immune disruptors and aging process would alter effective immunity. Outcomes of proposed orderly studies are expected to provide logical foundations for cost-effective strategies to promote immunity toward a healthier society. The policy makers and medical/cancer establishment are urged to return to the common sense that our Forefathers used to serve the public.
Nutrition plays a crucial role in supporting patients receiving treatment for cancer. Carefully considered nutritional options can help to manage patients with weight loss and cachexia, support the patient's ability to recover from surgery and cope with treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients living with and beyond cancer can also benefit from advice on optimal nutrition and lifestyle changes.
Edited by Dr Clare Shaw, Consultant Dietitian at The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, "Nutrition and Cancer" takes an unrivalled look at this prevalent disease, offering the reader: An insight into the nutritional challenges faced for patients with cancerA practical guide to nutrition and dietetic practice in cancer careA detailed look at nutritional options for different diagnostic groupsContributions from a wide range of cancer specialists
An excellent resource for dietitians, clinical nutritionists, doctors, nurses and other health professionals working with cancer patients, this book is also a fascinating reference for students and researchers with an interest in the area.
This pioneering book offers an introduction to photodynamic therapy, a promising new approach in the treatment of complex diseases like cancer and microbial infections in animals. Addressing all aspects, ranging from basics to clinical practice, it presents the history and fundamentals of photodynamic therapy for non-experts. It includes a collection of basic and clinical studies in cancer and infectious diseases, as well as illustrations of successful treatment procedures and future perspectives and innovative applications involving nanotechnology and advanced drug delivery. This valuable resource offers readers insights into how the therapy works and how to apply it effectively in daily practice.
This comprehensive manual covers all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, offering an upbeat and optimistic assessment of what can be achieved. While scientifically based, the book provides easy-to-follow guidelines for lifelong maintenance of skeletal structure and function. It deals with everything from the basic physiology of bone and mineral metabolism to the diagnostic utility of radiologic imaging and specialized tests and current treatment recommendations, including for fracture management. The relationship of osteoporosis to a variety of other disorders is also thoroughly explored and elucidated. Osteoporosis represents a global threat because every human being is vulnerable to it as time passes. The authors point out the enormous scale of the problem in terms of the human suffering, morbidity, and mortality on the one hand and the associated astronomical national and global costs on the other. Osteoporosis is preventable, and every doctor in every medical discipline can contribute to this goal. And though prevention is better than cure, it is never too late for effective therapy, as outlined in this book. Bone is every doctor's and every body's business!
This book, now in an extensively revised second edition, provides an exhaustive review of the state of the art in the management of prostate cancer, from screening to treatment, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. The editors are very excited about the outstanding new or updated contributions from the different expert authors. The opening chapters address basic aspects including epidemiology, pathology, biology, genetics, and chemoprevention. The role of individual and mass screening is carefully appraised, and extensive attention is devoted to diagnosis and clinical work-up by means of recently implemented investigations such as multiparametric MRI and choline PET-CT. The use of active surveillance is examined in detail. Subsequent chapters discuss the different therapies that may be employed: open and minimally invasive, including robot-assisted, radical prostatectomy, the various forms of radiation treatment, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, hormonal manipulations, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Up-to-date results from practice-changing phase III randomized clinical trials are included and special insights are provided into the interpretation of results and the patient's perspective.
HCC is the most common primary cancer of the liver and according to the WHO report, the fourth commonest cause of death. The estimated incidence of new cases worldwide is about 500,000-1,000,000 per year causing 600,000 deaths globally per year. Although there are large areas of the world where the incidence of HCC is still unknown, several countries in East Asia and some Sub-Saharan African regions are affected by a very high prevalence of HCC (over 20 cases/100,000 population). Areas with a moderately high risk (11-20 cases/100,000 population) include Italy, Spain and Latin America, while France, Germany and the United Kingdom have instead an intermediate risk (5-10 cases/100,000 population). A relatively low prevalence (less than 5 cases/100,000 population) is found in the United States, Canada and Scandinavia. The incidence of HCC has been rising in developed western countries in the last two decades, along with the emergence of the hepatitis C virus infection and due to the rise of immigration rates from HBV-endemic countries. In addition, even though the incidence of HCC reaches its highest peak among persons over 65 years, an increased incidence among younger individuals has been noted in the last two decades both in USA and Europe. A multidisciplinary approach should be taken when assessing patients with HCC; stage of HCC and liver disease should always be taken into account and the best treatment should be offered. Liver resection and ablative treatments should never be denied to patients, and curative procedures should be performed in hepato-biliary-pancreatic centers. Each HCC patient has to be evaluated singularly, stratifying each time the risk for the procedure so as to determine which treatment is the best treatment. It is also important to analyse all the possibilities that can be offered. This similar approach showed a good efficacy and safety in all "frail" patient categories, such as elderly patients or patients with HCC and HIV infection. Early diagnosis of HCC and retreatment for HCC recurrence have a key role in the survival of patients. Therefore, regular screening programs for HCC should be extended to all patients according to proposed guidelines, together with a greater proclivity for treatment and retreatment options in cases of an HCC diagnosis or recurrence. This may be an important and needed breakthrough for this rising problem.
Approximately10-20% Of Breast Cancer Patients Are Diagnosed With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. 100 Questions & Answers About Triple Negative Breast Cancer Provides Authoritative And Practical Answers To The Most Common Questions Asked By Patients And Their Loved Ones. This Easy-To-Read Book Is A Comprehensive Guide To The Basics Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Risk Factors And Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment, Survivorship, And Life After Diagnosis. Written By Renowned Medical Experts On The Topic, 100 Questions & Answers About Triple Negative Breast Cancer Is An Invaluable Resource For Anyone Coping With The Physical And Emotional Turmoil Of This Challenging Type Of Breast Cancer.
Handbook of Breast Cancer and related Breast Disease is a practical guide to the management of patients with breast malignancies and related non-neoplastic lesions. Written and edited by leading experts, this handbook focuses on the application of conventional and novel treatment strategies to the care of patients with nonmalignant breast disease and all stages of breast cancer.The handbook is organized chronologically, from screening, through diagnosis and management, to survivorship care and related medical issues. The bulk of these chapters provide evidence-based treatment strategies for all patient subsets, including how to manage patients with high risk breast lesions, invasive breast carcinoma at each stage, and with all known molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Surgical, radiation, and medical treatment options are all discussed for each stage of breast cancer including treatment approaches in pregnancy and for high risk lesions and Phyllodes. This handbook is a comprehensive yet concise resource for residents, fellows, and early-career practitioners. Community oncologists, breast surgeons, radiation oncologists, primary care practitioners, and OBGYNs will also find its concise review of new research and procedures to be very useful in this dynamic field of medicine.Key Features:Includes discussion of genomic testing in management of early stage breast cancerCovers adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment approachesIncludes short clinical trial reviews for quick update of study endpoints and results for reference in management of breast cancerOutlines strategies for survivorship issuesKey points in each chapter highlight clinical pearls and summarize other important concepts.
Comprised of cases presenting diverse clinical scenarios involving pituitary tumors and related conditions, this concise, practical casebook provides clinical endocrinologists with the best real-world strategies to properly diagnose and treat the various presentations and symptoms they may encounter in daily practice. Discussing macroprolactinoma, non-functioning adenoma, TSH-secreting adenoma, Cushing's disease and acromegaly, each chapter is a case that provides a unique clinical presentation of a patient's symptoms and clinical findings, diagnostic work-up and the thought process involved in navigating the treatment options, as well as the supporting evidence. Cases included illustrate different types of tumors, related disorders and special situations and considerations, in addition to various management strategies, complications and outcomes, with helpful clinical pearls and pitfalls. Pragmatic and reader-friendly, Pituitary Tumors: A Clinical Casebook is written by experts in the field and is designed to facilitate and guide endocrinologists in the sometimes challenging decision-making process by presenting real case scenarios that span the spectrum of pituitary tumor presentations and treatment options.
This book describes the features in structural imaging of the most important pediatric brain tumors with the aim of enabling radiologists to make the correct differential diagnosis and to provide the pediatric oncologist with all the imaging information relevant to further management. The opening chapter is devoted to the complex subject of pediatric trials at the national and international levels and the importance of staging for stratification, differential treatment, and outcome. A general imaging protocol for children with brain tumors is presented, and individual chapters then identify key points for the differential diagnosis and staging of posterior fossa tumors, low- and high-grade gliomas, germ cell tumors, and craniopharyngiomas. The relevance of aspects such as tumor site and age to diagnosis is explained, and pitfalls associated with meningeal dissemination and treatment-related complications mimicking recurrence are highlighted. The importance of ensuring comparability of follow-up by use of standard MR (or CT) imaging is emphasized. In drawing on the lessons gained both from pediatric trials and from the author's own experience, this book will be invaluable for all radiologists.
This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of juvenile angiofibroma, with contributions from all relevant specialties. Starting with a brief introduction to the history, etiology and relevant anatomy, the book goes on to discuss the pathology, clinical features and treatment of this disease in depth, concluding with a summary of current controversies. Juvenile Angiofibroma is aimed at a global audience of otolaryngologists, endoscopists, head and neck surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and geneticists.
This book introduces readers to the biology of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and emphasizes the necessity and importance of targeting LSCs in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. It addresses the role of leukemia stem cells in different leukemia diseases and molecular signatures, as well as the metabolic and epigenetic regulation of leukemia stem cell function. With regard to solid tumors, a significant number of blood cancers are believed to be derived from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which are responsible for disease progression, relapse and drug resistance. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed by focusing on the complete eradication of LSCs. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for graduate students and scientists in the fields of cell biology and cancer research etc.
This book is a pocket guide to the science and practice of PET/CT imaging of gynecological malignancies. The scientific principles of PET/CT, the radiopharmaceuticals used in the context of gynecological cancers, the role of PET/CT in these patients, the characteristic PET/CT findings, and limitations and pitfalls are all clearly described. In addition, information is provided on clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, pathology, management, and radiological imaging. The book is published within the Springer series Clinicians' Guides to Hybrid Imaging, which is aimed at referring clinicians, nuclear medicine/radiology physicians, radiographers/technologists, and nurses who routinely work in nuclear medicine and participate in multidisciplinary meetings. Compiled under the auspices of the British Nuclear Medicine Society, the series is the joint work of many colleagues and professionals worldwide who share a common vision and purpose in promoting and supporting nuclear medicine as an important imaging specialty for the diagnosis and management of oncological and non-oncological conditions.
This text properly considers the most recent and relevant advances in molecular RB of GB, taking into account the related topics of pathobiology, and underscores the most promising translational perspectives from the preclinical to the clinical domain. Section I (From Bedside to Bench) discusses conditions associated with RT resistance of GB and the consequent RB hints, technology improvements intended to overcome RT-resistance of GB, mathematical modeling of RB parameters from clinical studies, the present impact of molecular prognostic factors in therapy of GB, and RT tolerance of normal brain. Section II (Preclinical Research and Pathobiology Topics) presents the traditional and mechanistic/molecular approaches to RB of GB, genetic and epigenetic studies on GB, issues of cell-death pathways, stem-like cells, invasiveness, tumor microenvironment, hypoxia, mi-RNA manipulations, and nanoparticle technology. Section III (Translational Perspectives) presents RB issues related to molecular profiling and classification of GB as frames of reference for clinical studies, translational perspectives of gene therapy, evolving protocols based on pre-clinical data and large data-bases and ontologic models. Radiobiology of Glioblastoma: Recent Advances and Related Pathobiology will be of great value to pathologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists as well as basic researchers and clinical investigators.
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