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"Resurgent Voices in Latin America explores the critical role of religious beliefs and practices played by indigenous organizations in their struggle to redeem their rights and place in the nations of Latin America in which they are encompassed. This important contribution to indigenous studies should be required reading for students concerned with new directions in Latin America."-June Nash, author of Mayan Visions: The Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization. "Resurgent Voices in Latin America offers a rich, multi-faceted, and innovative approach to the roles religion plays in the emergence and political mobilization of indigenous identities."-Manuel Vasquez, coauthor of Globalizing the Sacred: Religion across the Americas "This important collection brings fresh data and challenging insights to the analysis of religion and political mobilization among indigenous peoples in Latin America."-Daniel H. Levine, University of Michigan "This is a rich volume. The essays are clearly written . . . Steigenga's concluding chapter serves as a excellent summing-up essay." -The Journal of Latin American Anthropolgy After more than 500 years of marginalization, Latin America's forty million Indians have recently made major strides in gaining political recognition and civil rights. In this book, social scientists explore the important role of religion in indigenous activism, showing the ways that religion has strengthened indigenous identity and contributed to the struggle for indigenous rights in the region. Drawing on case studies from Bolivia, Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Mexico, the contributors explore four key questions. How have traditional religions interacted with Christianity to produce new practices and beliefs? What resources, motivations, and ideological legitimacies do religious institutions provide for indigenous social movements? How effective are these movements in achieving their goals? Finally, as new religious groups continue to compete for adherents in the region, how will individuals' religious choices affect political outcomes? Resurgent Voices in Latin America offers new insight into the dynamics of indigenous social movements and into the complex and changing world of Latin American religions. The essays show that religious beliefs, practices, and institutions have both affected and been affected by political activism. Edward L. Cleary is a professor of political science and director of Latin American studies at Providence College. His most recent books include The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America and Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America. Timothy J. Steigenga is an associate professor of political science at the Wilkes Honors College of Florida Atlantic University and author of The Politics of the Spirit: The Political Implications of Pentecostalized Religion in Costa Rica and Guatemala.
In Fictions of Land and Flesh Mark Rifkin explores the impasses that arise in seeking to connect Black and Indigenous movements, turning to speculative fiction to understand those difficulties and envision productive ways of addressing them. As against efforts to subsume varied forms of resistance into a single framework in the name of solidarity, Rifkin argues that Black and Indigenous political struggles are oriented in distinct ways, following their own lines of development and contestation. Rifkin suggests how the movement between them can be approached as something of a speculative leap in which the terms and dynamics of the one are disoriented in the encounter with the other. Futurist fiction provides a compelling site for exploring such disjunctions. Through analyses of works by Octavia Butler, Walter Mosley, Nalo Hopkinson, Melissa Tantaquidgeon Zobel, and others, the book illustrates how ideas about fungibility, fugitivity, carcerality, marronage, sovereignty, placemaking, and governance shape the ways Black and Indigenous intellectuals narrate the past, present, and future. In turning to speculative fiction, Rifkin illustrates how speculation as a process provides conceptual and ethical resources for recognizing difference while engaging across it.
Garifuna live in Central America, primarily Honduras, and the United States. Identified as Black by others and by themselves, they also claim indigenous status and rights in Latin America. Examining this set of paradoxes, Mark Anderson shows how, on the one hand, Garifuna embrace discourses of tradition, roots, and a paradigm of ethnic political struggle. On the other hand, Garifuna often affirm blackness through assertions of African roots and affiliations with Blacks elsewhere, drawing particularly on popular images of U.S. blackness embodied by hip-hop music and culture.
"Black and Indigenous" explores the politics of race and culture among Garifuna in Honduras as a window into the active relations among multiculturalism, consumption, and neoliberalism in the Americas. Based on ethnographic work, Anderson questions perspectives that view indigeneity and blackness, nativist attachments and diasporic affiliations, as mutually exclusive paradigms of representation, being, and belonging.
As Anderson reveals, within contemporary struggles of race, ethnicity, and culture, indigeneity serves as a normative model for collective rights, while blackness confers a status of subaltern cosmopolitanism. Indigeneity and blackness, he concludes, operate as unstable, often ambivalent, and sometimes overlapping modes through which people both represent themselves and negotiate oppression.
In "Building One Fire," Chad Smith and renowned Cherokee-Osage scholar and author Rennard Strickland present a unique look at Cherokee art through the lens of Cherokee philosophy. Since the time when Water Spider brought the gift offire to the Cherokee people, the One Fire, "the Ancient Lady," has been at the center of Cherokee spiritual life.
From this fire, which represents community, thewhite smoke of prayer rises to Nitsudunvha, One Who is Always Above. In return Nitsudunvha sends to each person four sets of gifts with whichto develop mind, body, and spirit. These gifts are brought by four messengers, one from each of thecardinal directions. The gifts of the four messengers, the colors and qualities associated with them, and the four-pointcircle that embraces the sacred fire--all these arepart of Cherokee consciousness and creativity.They take visible form, subtly or directly, in works created by Cherokee artists.
This book presents more than 200 art-works by some 80 artists which speak to what it means to be Cherokee. Cherokee philosopher Benny Smith shares his teachings about Cherokee world view, Cherokee art is laid before the reader in a visual feast, and a special endingsection celebrates the vivaciousness of child artists who represent the next generation's creative Cherokee citizens.
On a cold, rainy dawn in late November 1872, Lieutenant Frazier Boutelle and a Modoc Indian nicknamed Scarface Charley leveled firearms at each other. Their duel triggered a war that capped a decades-long genocidal attack that was emblematic of the United States' conquest of Native America's peoples and lands. Robert Aquinas McNally tells the wrenching story of the Modoc War of 1872-73, one of the nation's costliest campaigns against North American Indigenous peoples, in which the army placed nearly one thousand soldiers in the field against some fifty-five Modoc fighters. Although little known today, the Modoc War dominated national headlines for an entire year. Fought in south-central Oregon and northeastern California, the war settled into a siege in the desolate Lava Beds and climaxed the decades-long effort to dispossess and destroy the Modocs. The war did not end with the last shot fired, however. For the first and only time in U.S. history, Native fighters were tried and hanged for war crimes. The surviving Modocs were packed into cattle cars and shipped from Fort Klamath to the corrupt, disease-ridden Quapaw reservation in Oklahoma, where they found peace even more lethal than war. The Modoc War tells the forgotten story of a violent and bloody Gilded Age campaign at a time when the federal government boasted officially of a "peace policy" toward Indigenous nations. This compelling history illuminates a dark corner in our country's past.
Britain formally colonised Van Diemen's Land in the early years of the nineteenth century. Small convict stations grew into towns. Pastoralists moved in to the aboriginal hunting grounds. There was conflict, there was violence. But, governments and gentlemen succeeded in burying the real story of the Vandemonian War for nearly two centuries. The Vandemonian War had many sides and shades, but it was fundamentally a war between the British colony of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and those Tribespeople who lived in political and social contradiction to that colony. In The Vandemonian War acclaimed history author Nick Brodie now exposes the largely untold story of how the British truly occupied Van Diemen's Land deploying regimental soldiers and special forces, armed convicts and mercenaries. In the 1820s and 1830s the British deliberately pushed the Tribespeople out, driving them to the edge of existence. Far from localised fights between farmers and hunters of popular memory, this was a war of sweeping campaigns and brutal tactics, waged by military and paramilitary forces subject to a Lieutenant Governor who was also Colonel Commanding. The British won the Vandemonian War and then discretely and purposefully concealed it. Historians failed to see through the myths and lies - until now. It is no exaggeration to say that the Tribespeople of Van Diemen's Land were extirpated from the island. Whole societies were deliberately obliterated. The Vandemonian War was one of the darkest stains on a former empire which arrogantly claimed perpetual sunshine. This is the story of that fight, redrawn from neglected handwriting nearly two centuries old.
Skin diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous people, leading to low mortality but greatly impacting their quality of life. Such diseases can be observed in indigenous people; both those living in isolated communities and those who have since been urbanized to some degree share a common characteristic of presenting different clinical patterns than non-indigenous individuals. These specificities necessitate a special approach when diagnosing dermatologic diseases in indigenous people. However, these considerations are rarely discussed in standard dermatology books. This Atlas addresses that gap by providing specific materials for professionals involved in the health of indigenous people, especially with those who live either alone or in remote areas. It offers a comprehensive overview of the most common skin diseases in specific tribes, providing a full clinical guide on the dermatologic signs and symptoms in these individuals. Additionally, the book complements the clinical standpoint with an anthropologic perspective, examining the impact of dermatologic diseases in indigenous people and the different meaning of these diseases in their lives. Most of the material presented in this Atlas was collected in the Xingu Program, a project created in 1965 by the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and devoted to providing medical care to indigenous people from the Upper Xingu region, in the heart of the Amazon rainforest. Thus, the content is primarily applicable to South American indigenous people. However, the common characteristics of the isolation and non-urbanization of these communities, as well as the anthropologic perspective adopted here, allow the content to be extrapolated to other indigenous peoples worldwide. This Atlas will be a novel and valuable resource for health professionals who work with indigenous peoples, especially in geographic areas where dermatologists are not always readily available.
The Cayuga are one of the original five nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, a powerful alliance of Native American tribes in the Northeast, inhabiting much of the land in what is now central New York State. When their nation was destroyed in the Sullivan-Clinton campaign of 1779, the Cayuga endured 200 years of displacement. As a result, relatively little is known about the location, organization, or ambience of their ancestral villages. Perched on a triangular finger of land against steep cliffs, the sixteenth-century village of Corey represents a rare source of knowledge about the Cayuga past, transforming our understanding of how this nation lived. In Corey Village and the Cayuga World, Rossen collects data from archaeological investigations of the Corey site, including artifacts that are often neglected, such as nonprojectile lithics and ground stone. In contrast with the conventional narrative of a population in constant warfare, analysis of the site's structure and materials suggests a peaceful landscape, including undefended settlements, free movement of people, and systematic trade and circulation of goods. These findings lead to a broad summary of Cayuga archaeological research, shedding new light on the age of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the role of the Cayuga in the American Revolution. Beyond the comprehensive analysis of artifacts, the Corey site excavation is significant for its commitment to the practice of ""indigenous archaeology,"" in which Native wisdom, oral history, collaboration, and participation are integral to the research.
The Cherokee are one of the largest Native American tribes in the United States, with more than three hundred thousand people across the country claiming tribal membership and nearly one million people internationally professing to have at least one Cherokee Indian ancestor. In this revealing history of Cherokee migration and resettlement, Gregory Smithers uncovers the origins of the Cherokee diaspora and explores how communities and individuals have negotiated their Cherokee identities, even when geographically removed from the Cherokee Nation headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Beginning in the eighteenth century, the author transports the reader back in time to tell the poignant story of the Cherokee people migrating throughout North America, including their forced exile along the infamous Trail of Tears (1838-39). Smithers tells a remarkable story of courage, cultural innovation, and resilience, exploring the importance of migration and removal, land and tradition, culture and language in defining what it has meant to be Cherokee for a widely scattered people.
For centuries the Huichol (Wixarika) Indian women of Jalisco, Mexico, have been weaving textiles on backstrap looms. This West Mexican tradition has been passed down from mothers to daughters since pre-Columbian times. Weaving is a part of each woman's identity-allowing them to express their ancient religious beliefs as well as to reflect the personal transformations they have undergone throughout their lives. In this book anthropologist Stacy B. Schaefer explores the technology of weaving and the spiritual and emotional meaning it holds for the women with whom she works and within their communities, which she experienced during her apprenticeship with master weavers in Wixarika families. She takes us on a dynamic journey into a realm of ancient beliefs and traditions under threat from the outside world in this fascinating ethnographic study.
This comprehensive look at Native American groups in the southwestern United States is one of the first to provide both ethnographic research and Native American viewpoints. Included are chapters on the Pueblos, the Hopi, and the Zuni; the Pimans, the Yaqui, and the River Yumans; the Upland Yumans, the Apache, the Navajo, and the Southern Paiute. It explores each group's environmental adaptation, linguistic affiliation, social organization, history, world view, material culture, and ceremonial institutions. Native Americans speak about contemporary issues such as the repatriation of sacred objects, reservation gambling, preservation of native plants, and the philosophy behind tribal colleges. "The combination of a scholarly and lyrical style makes Native Peoples of the Southwest highly informative and a pleasure to read. Reminiscent in its historical truthfulness of Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, this is a scholarly text that American Indians would want for their own children's higher education. And a must read for non-Indians who want to understand the true history of Southwestern American Indians. Native Peoples of the Southwest authoritatively answers why Indian people persistently and proudly are committed to preserving and maintaining their language, culture, and traditions within a society that nearly annihilated them, and provides hope that those who read it will join American Indians in cherishing and supporting the preservation of these living cultural treasures that bless this great land known for a short historical time as America."--Glenn Johnson, M. Ed. (Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma)
The Yupiit in southwestern Alaska are members of the larger family of Inuit cultures. Including more than 20,000 individuals in seventy villages, the Yupiit continue to engage in traditional hunting activities, carefully following the seasonal shifts in the environment they know so well. During the twentieth century, especially after the construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, the Yup'ik people witnessed and experienced explosive cultural changes. Anthropologist Ann Fienup-Riordan explores how these subarctic hunters engage in a ""hunt"" for history, to make connections within their own communities and between them and the larger world. She turns to the Yupiit themselves, joining her essays with eloquent narratives by individual Yupiit, which illuminate their hunting traditions in their own words. To highlight the ongoing process of cultural negotiation, Fienup-Riordan provides vivid examples: How the Yupiit use metaphor to teach both themselves and others about their past and present lives; how they maintain their cultural identity, even while moving away from native villages; and how they worked with museums in the ""Lower 48"" on an exhibition of Yup'ik ceremonial masks. Ann Fienup-Riordan has published many books on Yup'ik history and oral tradition, including Eskimo Essays: Yup'ik Lives and How We See Them, The Living Tradition of Yup'ik Masks and Boundaries and Passages. She has lived with and written about the Yupiit for twenty-five years.
Struggles over land and water have determined much of New Mexico's long history. The outcome of such disputes, especially in colonial times, often depended on which party had a strong advocate to argue a case before a local tribunal or on appeal. This book is partly about the advocates who represented the parties to these disputes, but it is most of all about the Hispanos, Indians, and Genizaros (Hispanicized nomadic Indians) themselves and the land they lived on and fought for. Having written about Hispano land grants and Pueblo Indian grants separately, Malcolm Ebright now brings these narratives together for the first time, reconnecting them and resurrecting lost histories. He emphasizes the success that advocates for Indians, Genizaros, and Hispanos have had in achieving justice for marginalized people through the return of lost lands and by reestablishing the right to use those lands for traditional purposes.
This is the definitive account of 10,000 years of North American Indian history. It has been described by American History Illustrated, America's leading popular history magazine, as 'An eloquent and exhaustive chronicle of the history of North America's peoples'.
Emile Petitot lived and worked in the Athabasca-Mackenzie area from 1862 to 1883. Accompanied by native guides, he made several journeys to the Arctic Ocean and inland, where he closely observed the geography and inhabitants of the area, drawing maps and gathering native place names.
The Midwinter ceremonial -- the longest and most complex of the rituals of the Longhouse religion -- is examined here in three parts. Following a short cultural history of the Iroquois and a description of the present geographical location of the various longhouses and tribes, Elisabeth Tooker discusses the principles of Iroquois ritualism.
The second part of the book is devoted to detailed accounts of the Midwinter ceremonial as it is performed today at six Iroquois longhouses. The third part presents the historical perspective of the ceremony through excerpts from writings of Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries, captives, travelers, local residents, and anthropologists.
In Indian Voices, Alison Owings takes readers on a fresh journey across America, east to west, north to south, and around again. Owings's most recent oral history--engagingly written in a style that entertains and informs--documents what Native Americans say about themselves, their daily lives, and the world around them. Young and old from many tribal nations speak with candor, insight, and (unknown to many non-Natives) humor about what it is like to be a Native American in the twenty-first century. Through intimate interviews many also express their thoughts about the sometimes staggeringly ignorant, if often well-meaning, non-Natives they encounter--some who do not realize Native Americans still exist, much less that they speak English, have cell phones, use the Internet, and might attend powwows and power lunches. Indian Voices, an inspiring and important contribution to the literature about the original Americans, will make every reader rethink the past--and present--of the United States.
In the nineteenth century, nearly all Native American men living along the southern New England coast made their living traveling the world's oceans on whaleships. Many were career whalemen, spending twenty years or more at sea. Their labor invigorated economically depressed reservations with vital income and led to complex and surprising connections with other Indigenous peoples, from the islands of the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean. At home, aboard ship, or around the world, Native American seafarers found themselves in a variety of situations, each with distinct racial expectations about who was ""Indian"" and how ""Indians"" behaved. Treated by their white neighbors as degraded dependents incapable of taking care of themselves, Native New Englanders nevertheless rose to positions of command at sea. They thereby complicated myths of exploration and expansion that depicted cultural encounters as the meeting of two peoples, whites and Indians. Highlighting the shifting racial ideologies that shaped the lives of these whalemen, Nancy Shoemaker shows how the category of ""Indian"" was as fluid as the whalemen were mobile.
"In Beauty I Walk" is the first anthology to offer generous selections of both oral/traditional texts and works by the first generations of Native American writers. Emphasizing the lines of continuity between traditional narratives, songs, and ceremonies and pioneering written works by authors such as John Rollin Ridge, Francis LaFlesche, Charles Eastman, Alexander Posey, Zitkala-Sa, E. Pauline Johnson, and D'Arcy McNickle, the anthology allows readers to see the ways in which writers of the modern "Native American Renaissance" have perpetuated, adapted, and departed from oral tradition. Including representative texts by authors from a number of Native tribes, from a range of literary genres, and by male and female authors, "In Beauty I Walk" also offers a fuller appreciation of contemporary Native American writing by revealing its roots and its place within a long continuum.
2018 Dwight L. Smith (ABC-CLIO) Award from the Western History Association A Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri offers the first annotated scholarly edition of Jean-Baptiste Truteau's journal of his voyage on the Missouri River in the central and northern Plains from 1794 to 1796 and of his description of the upper Missouri. This fully modern and magisterial edition of this essential journal surpasses all previous editions in assisting scholars and general readers in understanding Truteau's travels and encounters with the numerous Native peoples of the region, including the Arikaras, Cheyennes, Lakotas-Dakotas-Nakotas, Omahas, and Pawnees. Truteau's writings constitute the very foundation to our understanding of the late eighteenth-century fur trade in the region immediately preceding the expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson in 1803. An unparalleled primary source for its descriptions of Native American tribal customs, beliefs, rituals, material culture, and physical appearances, A Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri will be a classic among scholars, students, and general readers alike. Along with this new translation by Mildred Mott Wedel, Raymond J. DeMallie, and Robert Vezina, which includes facing French-English pages, the editors shed new light on Truteau's description of the upper Missouri and acknowledge his journal as the foremost account of Native peoples and the fur trade during the eighteenth century. Vezina's essay on the language used and his glossary of voyageur French also provide unique insight into the language of an educated French Canadian fur trader.
Sovereign Schools tells the epic story of one of the early battles for reservation public schools. For centuries indigenous peoples in North America have struggled to preserve their religious practices and cultural knowledge by educating younger generations but have been thwarted by the deeply corrosive effects of missionary schools, federal boarding schools, Bureau of Indian Affairs reservation schools, and off-reservation public schools. Martha Louise Hipp describes the successful fight through sustained Native community activism for public school sovereignty during the late 1960s and 1970s on the Shoshone and Arapaho tribes' Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming. Parents and students at Wind River experienced sustained educational discrimination in their school districts, particularly at the high schools located in towns bordering the reservation, not least when these public schools failed to incorporate history and culture of the Shoshones and Arapahos into the curriculum. Focusing on one of the most significant issues of indigenous activism of the era, Sovereign Schools tells the story of how Eastern Shoshones and Northern Arapahos asserted tribal sovereignty in the face of immense local, state, and federal government pressure, even from the Nixon administration itself, which sent mixed signals to reservations by promoting indigenous "self-determination" while simultaneously impounding federal education funds for Native peoples. With support from the Coalition of Indian Controlled School Boards and the Episcopal Church, the Wind River peoples overcame federal and local entities to reclaim their reservation schools and educational sovereignty.
In the first modern biography of Red jacket, Christopher Densmore sheds light on the achievements of this formidable Iroquois diplomat who, as a representative of the Seneca and Six Nations, met and negotiated with American presidents from George Washington to Andrew Jackson. The political career of Red Jacket (1758-1830) began just before the American Revolution, when both the Americans and the British sought the alliance of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy. By the 1790s, Red Jacket was frequently the diplomat chosen by the Seneca Nation and the Iroquois Confederacy to represent them in councils and treaty negotiations between the United States, the British in Canada, and the Indian nations of the Ohio Country. Red Jacket spoke eloquently against the sale of Indian lands, against the encroachment of the white man's religion and culture, and in defense of Indian sovereignty. His speeches were widely known in his own lifetime and continue to be reprinted.
The Onondaga County Department of Parks is pleased to have organized this book to interpret seventy-one turn-of-the-century photographs of the Onondaga Indian Nation. they offer rare and compelling insights into life nearly a century ago on the reservation just south of Syracuse, New York.
Labrador Innu cultural and environmental activist Tshaukuesh Elizabeth Penashue is well known both within and far beyond the Innu Nation. The recipient of a National Aboriginal Achievement Award and an honorary doctorate from Memorial University, she has been a subject of documentary films, books, and numerous articles. She was a leader in the Innu campaign against NATO's low-level flying and bomb testing on Innu land during the 1980s and `90s, and a key respondent in a landmark legal case in which the judge held that the Innu had the "colour of right" to occupy the Canadian Forces base in Goose Bay, Labrador. Over the past twenty years she has led walks and canoe trips in nutshimit, "on the land," to teach people about Innu culture and knowledge. Nitinikiau Innusi: I Keep the Land Alive began as a diary written in Innu-aimun, in which Tshaukuesh recorded day-to-day experiences as well as speeches, court appearances, and interviews with reporters. Tshaukuesh has always had a strong sense of the importance of documenting what was happening. She also found keeping a diary therapeutic, and her writing evolved from brief notes into a detailed account of her own life and reflections on Innu land, culture, politics, and history. Beautifully illustrated, this work contains numerous images by professional photographers and journalists as well as archival photographs and others from Tshaukuesh's own collection.
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