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This book is intended to serve as a "one-stop" reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of nanostructured polymer membranes and their processing and characterizations. It will be a very valuable reference source for university and college faculties, professionals, post-doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and researchers from R&D laboratories working in the area of polymer nanobased membranes. The various chapters are contributed by prominent researchers from industry, academia and government/private research laboratories across the globe and comprise an up-to-date record on the major findings and observations in the field.
As the ability to produce nanomaterials advances, it becomes more important to understand how the energy of the atoms in these materials is affected by their reduced dimensions. Written by an acclaimed author team, Kinetics in Nanoscale Materials is the first book to discuss simple but effective models of the systems and processes that have recently been discovered. The text provides researchers and graduate students with a combination of the novelty of nanoscale processes and systems with the transparency of mathematical models and generality of basic ideas relating to nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Introductory Transport Phenomena by R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart, Edwin N. Lightfoot, and Daniel Klingenberg is a new introductory textbook based on the classic Bird, Stewart, Lightfoot text, Transport Phenomena. The authors goal in writing this book reflects topics covered in an undergraduate course. Some of the rigorous topics suitable for the advanced students have been retained. The text covers topics such as: the transport of momentum; the transport of energy and the transport of chemical species. The organization of the material is similar to Bird/Stewart/Lightfoot, but presentation has been thoughtfully revised specifically for undergraduate students encountering these concepts for the first time. Devoting more space to mathematical derivations and providing fuller explanations of mathematical developments including a section of the appendix devoted to mathematical topics allows students to comprehend transport phenomena concepts at an undergraduate level.
Around 1885, Alfred Barnard was secretary of Harper's Weekly Gazette, a journal dedicated to the wine and spirit trade. In order to provide his readers with the history and descriptions of the whisky-making process, Barnard decided to visit all distilleries in Scotland, England and Ireland. Accompanied by friends, he visited over 150 distilleries. The names found in his reports still excite the dedicated whisky connoisseur today, as well as others whose fame has faded since the end of the 19th century. The appeal of Barnard's book lies not only in the technical descriptions of each distillery's processes, but also in the colourful descriptions of his journeys, brimming with historical colour and detail. A superbly illustrated facsimile edition, with over 200 engravings, this book is a complete guide to the origins of Scotland's national drink, as well as a lively picture of life and travel in the Victorian age.
This book presents two main sets of paper-based analytical systems. The first set is a platform for the analysis of glucose, cholesterol and uric acid in biological samples, and the second set is a cutting-edge electronic tongue system for the analysis of beverages (mineral water, beer, wine). This thesis also provides an extensive review of 33 methods of enzyme immobilization on paper which have been evaluated to enhance the storage stability of the proposed system for biomarker detection. From a practical perspective, this thesis covers a diverse set of topics related to paper-based sensing, including colorimetric and electrochemical detection methods, different sets of architecture (spot-tests, lateral and tangential flow assays), methods of fabrication (wax printing, cutting, impregnation with polymers), measurements in stationary and flow conditions as well computer modeling of proposed systems and sophisticated data analysis using chemometric techniques. This book is useful for PhD students working in this or a related field who require detailed information about methodology and background to this research.
Completely revised and updated to reflect the significant advances in pharmaceutical production and regulatory expectations, this third edition of Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes examines and blueprints every step of the validation process needed to remain compliant and competitive. The many chapters added to the prior compilation examine validation and six sigma system design; the preparation of aseptic and non-aseptic pharmaceutical products; active pharmaceutical ingredient and biotechnology processes, computerized systems; qualification and cleaning of equipment; analytical methods, calibration and certification. As the industry's leading source for validation of sterile pharmaceutical processes for more than 10 years, this greatly expanded is a comprehensive analysis of all of the fundamental elements of this arena with practical solutions for every pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical production process. Presenting theoretical knowledge and applied practical considerations, this title -provides an in-depth discussion of recent advances in sterilization -identifies obstacles that may be encountered at any stage of the validation program, and suggests the newest and most advanced solutions -explores distinctive and specific process steps, and identifies critical process control points to reach acceptable results -blends the use of theoretical knowledge with recent technological advancements to achieve applied practical solutions
Sintering of Ceramics provides the only comprehensive treatment of the theories and principles of sintering and their application to the production of advanced ceramics with the required target microstructure. Stemming from the author's bestselling text, "Ceramic Processing and Sintering," this book includes additional material selected from many sources, providing a single comprehensive volume of all aspects of sintering theory and practice. While the emphasis is on the sintering of ceramics, the book is also useful for the sintering of metals and other materials because of the comprehensive treatment.
Starting with a review of sintering fundamentals such as diffusion and defect chemistry, the book continues with a detailed treatment of solid-state sintering, viscous sintering of amorphous materials, grain growth and microstructural evolution in solid-state materials, and liquid-phase sintering. Special topics include sintering difficulties such as constrained sintering of composites, adherent thin films, and multilayers; solid solution additives and their role in microstructure control, morphological stability of continuous phases and thin films; and sintering with concurrent reaction or crystallization. The treatment concludes with coverage of practical methods for improving sintering techniques, the effects of process variables on sintering behavior, and applications of sintering to the development of advanced ceramics.
Sintering of Ceramics provides an up-to-date text for a senior undergraduate, introductory graduate, or continuing education course in sintering, as well as an ideal reference text for scientists and engineers involved in the research, development, andmanufacture of ceramics or powder metallurgy products.
This thesis describes the inception, design, and implementation of stereoselective desymmetrization reactions in the total synthesis of the natural products pactamycin and paspaline. In the case of pactamycin, the author develops a novel asymmetric Mannich reaction and symmetry-breaking reduction strategy to enable facile construction of the complex core architecture in fifteen steps using commercially available materials - the shortest synthesis to date. He subsequently demonstrates the flexibility of this approach in SAR investigations by highlighting the preparation of twenty-five unique pactamycin structural congeners. For paspaline, the author develops a biocatalytic desymmetrization strategy that allows the highly controlled synthesis of core stereochemistry and provides a platform for the development of new conceptual disconnections in the synthesis of "steroid-like" natural products. This thesis offers a valuable resource for students embarking on a PhD in total synthesis.
Manuel Kroiss examines the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells using machine learning methods. This work is based on experiments focusing on the lineage choice of CMPs, the progenitors of HSCs, which either become MEP or GMP cells. The author presents a novel approach to distinguish MEP from GMP cells using machine learning on morphology features extracted from bright field images. He tests the performance of different models and focuses on Recurrent Neural Networks with the latest advances from the field of deep learning. Two different improvements to recurrent networks were tested: Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) cells that are able to remember information over long periods of time, and dropout regularization to prevent overfitting. With his method, Manuel Kroiss considerably outperforms standard machine learning methods without time information like Random Forests and Support Vector Machines.
Comprehensively covers conventional and novel drying systems and applications, while keeping a focus on the fundamentals of drying phenomena. * Presents detailed thermodynamic and heat/mass transfer analyses in a reader-friendly and easy-to-follow approach * Includes case studies, illustrative examples and problems * Presents experimental and computational approaches * Includes comprehensive information identifying the roles of flow and heat transfer mechanisms on the drying phenomena * Considers industrial applications, corresponding criterion, complications, prospects, etc. * Discusses novel drying technologies, the corresponding research platforms and potential solutions
In this book, the self-healing of composite structures with shape memory polymer as either matrix or embedded suture is systematically discussed. Self-healing has been well known in biological systems for many years: a typical example is the self-healing of human skin. Whilst a minor wound can be self-closed by blood clotting, a deep and wide cut needs external help by suturing. Inspired by this observation, this book proposes a two-step close-then-heal (CTH) scheme for healing wide-opened cracks in composite structures-by constrained shape recovery first, followed by molecular healing. It is demonstrated that the CTH scheme can heal wide-opened structural cracks repeatedly, efficiently, timely, and molecularly. It is believed that self-healing represents the next-generation technology and will become an engineering reality in the near future.
The book consists of both fundamental background and practical skills for implementing the CTH scheme, with additional focus on understanding strain memory versus stress memory and healing efficiency evaluation under various fracture modes. Potential applications to civil engineering structures, including sealant for bridge decks and concrete pavements, and rutting resistant asphalt pavements, are also explored. This book will help readers to understand this emerging field, and to establish a framework for new innovation in this direction.
Key features: explores potential applications of shape memory polymers in civil engineering structures, which is believed to be unique within the literaturebalanced testing and mathematical modeling, useful for both academic researchers and practitionersthe self-healing scheme is based on physical change of polymers and is written in an easy to understand style for engineering professionals without a strong background in chemistry
Focusing on current and future uses of microbes as production organisms, this practice-oriented textbook complements traditional texts on microbiology and biotechnology. The editors have brought together leading researchers and professionals from the entire field of industrial microbiology and together they adopt a modern approach to a well-known subject. Following a brief introduction to the technology of microbial processes, the twelve most important application areas for microbial technology are described, from crude bulk chemicals to such highly refined biomolecules as enzymes and antibodies, to the use of microbes in the leaching of minerals and for the treatment of municipal and industrial waste. In line with their application-oriented topic, the authors focus on the "translation" of basic research into industrial processes and cite numerous successful examples. The result is a first-hand account of the state of the industry and the future potential for microbes in industrial processes. Interested students of biotechnology, bioengineering, microbiology and related disciplines will find this a highly useful and much consulted companion, while instructors can use the case studies and examples to add value to their teaching.
Electrolyte solutions play a key role in traditional chemical industry processes as well as other sciences such as hydrometallurgy, geochemistry, and crystal chemistry. Knowledge of electrolyte solutions is also key in oil and gas exploration and production, as well as many other environmental engineering endeavors. Until recently, a gap existed between the electrolyte solution theory dedicated to diluted solutions, and the theory, practice, and technology involving concentrated solutions. Electrolytes: Supramolecular Interactions and Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Concentrated Solutions addresses concentrated electrolyte solutions and the theory of structure formation, super and supramolecular interactions, and other physical processes with these solutions-now feasible due to new precision measurement techniques and experimental data that have become available. The first part of the book covers the electrolyte solution in its stationary state-electrostatic, and various ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, and mutual repulsion interactions. The second part covers the electrolyte solution in its nonstationary status, in the case of forced movement between two plates-electrical conductivity, viscosity, and diffusion. This theoretical framework allows for the determination of activity coefficients of concentrated electrolyte solutions, which play a key role in many aspects of electrochemistry and for developing novel advanced processes in inorganic chemical plants.
Metal-air batteries (MABs) have attracted attention because of their high specific energy, low cost, and safety features. This book discusses science and technology including material selection, synthesis, characterization, and their applications in MABs. It comprehensively describes various composite bifunctional electrocatalysts, corrosion/oxidation of carbon-containing air cathode catalysts, and how improvements can be achieved in the catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction and their durability/stability. This book also analyzes, compares, and discusses composite bifunctional electrocatalysts in the applications of MABs, matching the fast information of commercial MABs in requirements. Aimed at researchers and industry professionals, this comprehensive work provides readers with an appreciation for what bifunctional composite electrocatalysts are capable of, how this field has grown in the past decades, and how bifunctional composite electrocatalysts can significantly improve the performance of MABs. It also offers suggestions for future research directions to overcome technical challenges and further facilitate research and development in this important area.
Capsaicin, and several related compounds, are called capsaicinoids and are produced as secondary metabolites by chili peppers. Capsaicin is an alkaloid responsible for the spicy, burning taste of chili peppers. Capsaicin is a crystalline, lipophilic, colorless and odorless alkaloid. It is widely consumed in spicy foods throughout the world, particularly in South East Asia and Latin-America. This book discusses several medical uses of capsaicin as well as health implications and food sources.
Searching for green and environmentally friendly polymerization
methods by using enzymes? This first handbook on this hot and
essential topic contains the whole chain of knowledge of
biocatalysis in polymer chemistry in both a comprehensive and
compact form. International leading experts cover all important
aspects, from enzymatic monomer synthesis to polymer modification
This book focuses on food, non-food, and industrial packaging applications of polymers, blends, nanostructured materials, macro, micro and nanocomposites, and renewable and biodegradable materials. It details physical, thermal, and barrier properties as well as sustainability, recycling, and regulatory issues. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary research on processing, morphology, structure, and properties as well as applications in packaging of food and industrial products. It is useful for chemists, physicists, materials scientists, food technologists, and engineers.
An A-to-Z of doping including its definition, its importance, methods of measurement, advantages and disadvantages, properties and characteristics and role in conjugated polymers The versatility of polymer materials is expanding because of the introduction of electro-active behavior into the characteristics of some of them. The most exciting development in this area is related to the discovery of intrinsically conductive polymers or conjugated polymers, which include such examples as polyacetylene, polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene as well as their derivatives. "Synmet" or "synthetic metal" conjugated polymers, with their metallic characteristics, including conductivity, are of special interest to researchers. An area of limitless potential and application, conjugated polymers have sparked enormous interest, beginning in 2000 when the Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of electrically conducting conjugated polymers was awarded to three scientists: Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa. Conjugated polymers have a combination of properties both metallic (conductivity) and polymeric; doping gives the conjugated polymer's semiconducting a wide range of conductivity, from insulating to low conducting. The doping process is a tested effective method for producing conducting polymers as semiconducting material, providing a substitute for inorganic semiconductors. Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the first book dedicated to the subject and offers a comprehensive A-to-Z overview. It details doping interaction, dopant types, doping techniques, and the influence of the dopant on applications. It explains how the performance of doped conjugated polymers is greatly influenced by the nature of the dopants and their level of distribution within the polymer, and shows how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical properties of the doped conjugated polymers can be tailored by controlling the size and mobility of the dopants counter ions. The book also examines doping at the nanoscale, in particular, with carbon nanotubes. Readership The book will interest a broad range of researchers including chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, electronic and electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists. It can also be used in both graduate and upper-level undergraduate courses on conjugated polymers and polymer technology.
Edited by two of the most distinguished pioneers in genetic manipulation and bioprocess technology, this bestselling reference presents a comprehensive overview of current cell culture technology used in the pharmaceutical industry. Contributions from several leading researchers showcase the importance of gene discovery and genomic technology development in the production of biotechnology products, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapies. Offering detailed guidance, they cover the steps leading up to the creation of viable therapies including host cell selection, cloning and gene amplification, bioreactor design and operation, protein purification, optimization, scale-up, and facility design.
This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.
Traditional milling is a time-consuming and laborious task for rural women and there is a great need to mechanise this operation. However, the traditional milling practices have many nutritious advantages for children and women which are not associated with the new milling techniques and instead of being an improvement there are great risk that "improved milling" can be a threat to vulnerable groups.;Should the milling take place at homestead and village level, or be centralized to larger sophisticated units? The former level can normally produce a coarse but nutritious product while the latter will result in a nice flour which often lacks essential nutrients need by people living on cereal dominated diets. Which milling technique is the most appropriate in relation to technical, economical, social, nutritional and health aspects?;The questions are many and "Small-scale Milling" is a comprehensive and practical guide to improved food processing in both rural and poor urban areas, bring together the authors' many years of practical experience of post-production activities in cereals. It has been written because of lack of practical guidelines on how to design and manage viable milli
Rediscover the economic potential of growing Ribes cultivars in the United States and Canada! Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries: A Guide for Growers, Marketers, and Researchers in North America explores the biology and history of growing these small fruits as commercial crops in North America. This book provides authoritative information on the potential risks and profits of establishing a currant or gooseberry farm and offers step-by-step details for cost-effective set-up, maintenance, and post-harvest activities. This book will be a reliable reference for prospective growers and Ribes researchers. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries presents in detail the necessary components of successful Ribes culture farming, including: site and soil selection design of planting site plant propagation cultivar selection cultural practice pest and disease management harvesting and marketing The book supplies the latest production figures for Ribes crops worldwide to help you choose which crops to grow. It also contains detailed information on fruit biochemistry, allowing you to market to human health industries. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries is the first North American publication to focus exclusively on Ribes culture in more than 50 years. It's your one-stop resource for up-to-date information this side of the Atlantic Ocean. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries provides you with tables, figures, and appendices, such as a table of the state regulations governing the importation and growing of currants, gooseberries, and jostaberries as listed by the Department of Agriculture calendars of what you need to do throughout the year to prepare, plant, and manage Ribes crops a list of cultivars available in North America tables of suggested parentage for currants and gooseberries to breed for improved fruit and juice quality, disease resistance or frost resistance, or improved mechanics for harvest a site selection checklist an enterprise budget showing typical costs of producing currants and gooseberries for sale in the market
The distilled spirits industry is rapidly embracing new technologies to save energy, protect the environment and embrace new scientific approaches to improve efficiencies. These issues are covered in this book which originated from the Worldwide Distilled Spirits Conference held in Edinburgh and organised by the Institute of Brewing & Distilling, Scottish Section. 340 international delegates at that conference discussed key scientific and technological challenges facing the modern distilling industry under the main themes of: Energy, Environment and Enlightenment. These topics are comprehensively discussed in these proceedings with 50 chapters dealing with raw materials, yeast and fermentation, energy conservation, co-product treatment, process efficiencies, impact of new technologies on flavour and consumer-product interaction. This book is the third in a series of proceedings published by Nottingham University Press - the first, in 2004 described how production of distilled spirits throughout the world is a remarkable balance between tradition and innovation, and the second published in 2008 described how the distilled spirits industry is changing rapidly to meet the demands of globalisation.
Kitchen Pro Series: Guide to Produce Identification, Fabrication, and Utilization is the definitive guide to selection, purchasing and fabricating produce for professional chefs, foodservice personnel, culinarians, and food enthusiasts. Part of CIA's new Kitchen Pro Series focusing on kitchen preparation skills, this user-friendly, full-color resource provides practical and detailed information on product identification, seasonality, availability, storage, maturity and ripeness, taste and utilization tactics. If you're seeking a comprehensive guide to produce, then this publication is for you.
This book covers recent developments in types, classifications, and genetic traits of indigenous milk microorganisms and dairy starter cultures. It also discusses biochemical reactions taking place in different dairy products and microorganisms involved in such reactions. The text provides strategies for rapid detection of pathogenic and non pathogenic organisms in milk and milk products and safety systems for dairy processing. It concludes with a discussion of the effects of non thermal processing technologies on milk microorganisms and biochemical reactions in milk products. "
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