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Provides complete and undiluted knowledge on making inorganic polymers functional. This comprehensive book reflects the state of the art in the field of inorganic polymers, based on research conducted by a number of internationally leading research groups working in this area. It covers the synthesis aspects of synthetic inorganic polymers and looks at multiple inorganic monomers as building blocks, which exhibit unprecedented electronic, redox, photo-emissive, magnetic, self-healing and catalytic properties. It also looks at the applications of inorganic polymers in areas such as optoelectronics, energy storage, industrial chemistry, and biology. Beginning with an overview of the use of smart inorganic polymers in daily life, Smart Inorganic Polymers: Synthesis, Properties and Emerging Applications in Materials and Life Sciences goes on to study the synthesis, properties, and applications of polymers incorporating different heteroelements such as boron, phosphorus, silicon, germanium, and tin. The book also examines inorganic polymers in flame-retardants, as functional materials, and in biology. An excellent addition to the polymer scientists' and synthetic chemists' toolbox Summarizes the state of the art on how to make and use functional inorganic polymers, from synthesis to applications Edited by the coordinator of a highly funded European community research program (COST action) that focuses specifically on the exploration of inorganic polymers Features contributions from top experts in the field Aimed at academics and industrial researchers in this field, Smart Inorganic Polymers: Synthesis, Properties and Emerging Applications in Materials and Life Sciences will also benefit scientists who want to get a better overview on the state-of-the-art of this rapidly advancing area.
Gracey?s Meat Hygiene, Eleventh Edition is the definitive reference for veterinarians working in meat hygiene control. This new edition of a classic text reflects the recent significant changes in science, legislation and practical implementation of meat hygiene controls in the UK, Europe and worldwide since the 10th edition was published in 1999. An excellent practical guide for teaching food hygiene to veterinary students worldwide, in addition to laying the foundations of food animal anatomy, pathology and disease. New chapters address the increased concern of both the public and inspectors to issues of animal welfare and recognise the role of the profession, and interest from the consumer, in environmental protection. Key features include: Fully updated new edition, in a refreshed design with colour photographs and illustrations throughout. Includes new content on meat hygiene inspection covering the components of an integrated food safety management system as well as animal health and welfare controls in the ?farm to fork? system. A practical approach to health and safety in meat processing is outlined by identifying the hazards and then describing how these can best be controlled. With contributions from veterinary and industry experts, this edition is both a valuable teaching aid and a practical reference for veterinarians and all food business operators and their staff.
Drug resistance is a fundamental factor in treatment failure in diseases like leishmaniasis, although additional factors also play a role in this phenomenon. This volume is the second edition of a well-received book that provides a comprehensive update on the pathology of the disease, as well as on the concept of parasitic drug resistance, its molecular basis, consequences and possible treatments. A valuable resource for scientists both from academia and industry involved in biomedical research and drug design, the book provides the knowledge needed to understand leishmaniasis and to contibute to combatting this disease worldwide.
Good packaging improves the presentation of a foodstuff, increasing its market value as well as convenience in handling. Packaging can perform three functions: it acts as a container, enabling a chosen quantity of a product to be handled as a unit during distribution and storage; it helps to protect against damage and spoilage; and it can communicate information about the contents.;"Packaging" discusses these functions in detail and looks at traditional and mechanized packaging systems for use by small-scale producers. Case studies from around the world examine the introduction of improved packaging technology, and there are useful lists of manufacturers and organizations which can help small businesses. This book is part of the "Food Cycle Technology Source Books Series". Designed for people who have no technical background or previous knowledge of the technologies, the titles in this series offer information on existing ways of improving the technology of food processing and increasing the quality and range of foodstuffs produced.
Supramolecular catalysis is involved in assimilation or growth of biological products and it has advantages over conventional catalysis in dealing with systems beyond molecules to mimic the biological catalytic processes. Principles and Advances in Supramolecular Catalysis shows how a supramolecular catalytic reaction proceeds and how interactions among molecules provide vessels or specific binding sites to carry out chemical reactions. The utilities of such catalytic reactions in waste, hazard management, medicine, food, etc. are explained in this book. The book focuses on examples to provide a fundamental basis so that, in the future, supramolecular catalytic reactions are utilised in the field of chemical, biological, biophysical sciences and technologies. Features: Discusses fundamental and interdisciplinary aspects of supramolecular catalysis Narrates mechano-chemical and stimuli-guided supramolecular catalytic reactions Divulges the intriguing aspects of self-replications and self-assembling performed through supramolecular catalysis Incorporates supramolecular catalytic reactions of metal-organic frameworks as artificial metalloenzymes
An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization) and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale).
A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work.
Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debonding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the overall buckling of the structure. Finally, several numerical examples that evaluates the qualities and capabilities of the general model formulated are offered in this book.
This book is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge of composite structures behavior.
Chemical engineers face the challenge of learning the difficult concept and application of entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. By following a visual approach and offering qualitative discussions of the role of molecular interactions, Koretsky helps them understand and visualize thermodynamics. Highlighted examples show how the material is applied in the real world. Expanded coverage includes biological content and examples, the Equation of State approach for both liquid and vapor phases in VLE, and the practical side of the 2nd Law. Engineers will then be able to use this resource as the basis for more advanced concepts.
This book was conceived from a simple question as to why cancer is so difficult to treat. Ultimately we want to find ways to cure cancers, but that may be an elusive dream at least with the technologies we have now and expect to have in the near future. This leads the question of whether it is possible to improve current cancer treatment methods, especially from the perspective of enhancing targeted drug delivery to tumors. This volume is designed to provide information related to the difficulties in treating cancers through targeted drug delivery, our current understanding of cancer biology, and potential technologies that might be used to achieve enhanced drug delivery to tumors. An ideal drug delivery system for treating cancers would maximize the therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects in clinical applications. The seemingly improved anticancer efficacy of the current nanoparticle-based formulations needs to be viewed from the context of very poor success rates for translation to human applications. The results of in vitro cell culture models and small animal in vivo experiments have not been extrapolated to clinical applications. Finding the reasons for the lack of successful translation is required if we are to discover approaches to substantially extend the survival time of cancer patients, and hopefully identify cures. Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery: Elusive Dream describes some answers of achieving the so far elusive dream of treating cancers like other chronic diseases with therapies that focus using improved drug delivery systems designed to better align with the unique biological and physiological properties of cancer.
This useful book reviews and analyzes the rigorous scientific, regulatory, and clinical testing and evaluation applied to the widely used food additive aspartame. In one compact volume you gain access to extensive information illustrating the increased recognition by regulatory agencies of the usefulness of human studies in evaluating new food additives. The Clinical Evaluation of a Food Additive: Assessment of Aspartame begins by describing the nuts and bolts of food additive safety evaluation in humans, including an insightful historical perspective of the development of good clinical practice guidelines. It provides the regulatory requirements for human research, as well as key elements for the design and conduct of human studies. The scientific and regulatory considerations of food additive safety are explored, including interesting descriptions of aspartame's key animal safety studies. In addition, the book reviews the medical postmarketing surveillance system developed for identifying and evaluating reports of aspartame's alleged adverse health effects. Through meticulous research and systematic clarity, The Clinical Evaluation of a Food Additive: Assessment of Aspartame provides work-saving, state-of-the-art examples to guide future testing and evaluation of tomorrow's food additives.
This book evaluates trends arising in "-Omics" sciences in terms of their current and potential future application to therapeutic design and understanding of disease. Chapters consider the impact of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics on drug development, as well as trends in genomics, as applied to understanding of neurodegenerative and lung disease, psychiatry and oncology. Following the genome studies released in early part of this century, the advent of the -Omics sciences (genomics and pharmacogenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics) has seen the expansion of a vast knowledgebase with utility in preventing and treating disease, and improving health for all. Bioinformatics and improved pharmacogenetic understanding forge a path for improved drug discovery and design methods accounting for differences in delivery and disposition across populations.
Multiphase polymeric systems include a wide range of materials such as composites, blends, alloys, gels, and interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). A one-stop reference on multiphase polymer systems, this book fully covers the preparation, properties, and applications of advanced multiphase systems from macro to nano scales. Edited by well-respected academics in the field of multiphase polymer systems, the book includes contributions from leading international experts. An essential resource for plastic and rubber technologists, filler specialists and researchers in fields studying thermal and electrical properties.
This volume emphasizes the growing need for wood products with advanced engineering properties. It details the fundamental principles of cellulose technology and presents current techniques to modifying the basic chemistry of lignocellulosic materials. The work: discusses the cost-efficient use of cellulose derivatives in a variety of commodities; highlights the chemical modification of wood by methods such as etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers recent progress in the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wood; and more.
Presents detailed information and study cases on experiments on hydrotreating catalysts for the petroleum industry Catalytic hydrotreating (HDT) is a process used in the petroleum refining industry for upgrading hydrocarbon streams--removing impurities, eliminating metals, converting asphaltene molecules, and hydrocracking heavy fractions. The major applications of HDT in refinery operations include feed pretreatment for conversion processes, post-hydrotreating distillates, and upgrading heavy crude oils. Designing HDT processes and catalysts for successful commercial application requires experimental studies based on appropriate methodologies. Experimental Methods for Evaluation of Hydrotreating Catalysts provides detailed descriptions of experiments in different reaction scales for studying the hydrotreating of various petroleum distillates. Emphasizing step-by-step methodologies in each level of experimentation, this comprehensive volume presents numerous examples of evaluation methods, operating conditions, reactor and catalyst types, and process configurations. In-depth chapters describe experimental setup and procedure, analytical methods, calculations, testing and characterization of catalyst and liquid products, and interpretation of experiment data and results. The text describes experimental procedure at different levels of experimentation--glass reactor, batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor, and multiple scales of tubular reactors--using model compounds, middle distillates and heavy oil. This authoritative volume: Introduces experimental setups used for conducting research studies, such as type of operation, selection of reactor, and analysis of products Features examples focused on the evaluation of different reaction parameters and catalysts with a variety of petroleum feedstocks Provides experimental data collected from different reaction scales Includes experiments for determining mass transfer limitations and deviation from ideality of flow pattern Presents contributions from leading scientists and researchers in the field of petroleum refining Experimental Methods for Evaluation of Hydrotreating Catalysts is an indispensable reference for researchers and professionals working in the area of catalytic hydrotreating, as well as an ideal textbook for courses in fields such as chemical engineering, petrochemical engineering, and biotechnology.
Providing chemical engineering undergraduate and graduate students with a basic understanding of how separation of a mixture of molecules, macromolecules or particles is achieved, this textbook is a comprehensive introduction to the engineering science of separation. * Students learn how to apply their knowledge to determine the separation achieved in a given device or process * Real-world examples are taken from biotechnology, chemical, food, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and pollution control industries * Worked examples, elementary separator designs and chapter-end problems are provided, giving students a practical understanding of separation. The textbook systematically develops different separation processes by considering the forces causing the separation and how this separation is influenced by the patterns of bulk flow in the separation device. Readers will be able to take this knowledge and apply it to their own future studies and research in separation and purification. Online resources include solutions to the exercises and guidance for computer simulations.
The understanding of functional groups is key for the understanding of all organic chemistry. In the tradition of the Patai Series each volume treats all aspects of functional groups. Each volume contains chapters on the theoretical and physicochemical foundations; on analytical aspects; on reaction mechanisms; on applications in synthesis. Depending on the functional group there are additional chapters on industrial use, on medical use, and on human and environmental toxicity issues. The last volume in the series on the topic (Peroxides Vol. 2) was published in 2006. In the eight years since then a lot of developments have taken place, especially in the areas of synthesis, analysis and a better theoretical understanding of the reaction mechanism, all of which are covered here. As with all new volumes, the chapters are first published online in Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups. Once a volume is completed online, it is then published in print format. The printed book offers the traditional quality of the Patai Book Series, complete with an extensive index.
Food texture has evolved to be at the forefront of food formulation and development. Food Texture Design and Optimization presents the latest insights in food texture derived from advances in formulation science as well as sensory and instrumental measurement. This unique volume provides practical insights for professionals who are starting in the field as well as experts looking to enhance their knowledge or expand into new areas. The first part of this book presents case studies on formulating products in a broad variety of application segments, such as cheese, ice-cream, baked goods, gluten-free products, low-fat/non-fat dairy products and more. Challenges related to maintaining texture while optimizing nutritional content, cost, flavor and other attributes of the food product are investigated. The book also highlights the importance of texture design and optimization in several types of food products and demonstrates how experts have applied this knowledge in the industry. Part two provides an overview of the latest advances in tools and techniques for food texture design and optimization, focusing on the use of instrumental techniques, the application of sensory techniques, and the use of marketing and consumer insight tools in the design and optimization of food products. The ability to use advanced characterization techniques in this field is critical for both new and established practitioners in tackling the problems they face. Food Texture Design and Optimization serves as an important reference for technical practitioners on how to adopt advanced techniques in food texture research. This information is invaluable in reviewing establish the state of the art in this field and providing a minimum recommended standard for food formulators.
There's a reason we pay top dollar for Champagne and that bottles of wine from prestige vineyards cost as much as a car: a place's distinct geographical attributes, known as terroir to wine buffs, determine the unique profile of a wine--and some rarer locales produce wines that are particularly coveted. In Volcanoes and Wine, geologist Charles Frankel introduces us to the volcanoes that are among the most dramatic and ideal landscapes for wine making. Traveling across regions well-known to wine lovers like Sicily, Oregon, and California, as well as the less familiar Canary Islands, Frankel gives an in-depth account of famous volcanoes and the wines that spring from their idiosyncratic soils. From Santorini's vineyards of rocky pumice dating back to a four-thousand-year-old eruption to grapes growing in craters dug in the earth of the Canary Islands, from Vesuvius's famous Lacryma Christi to the ambitious new generation of wine growers reviving the traditional grapes of Mount Etna, Frankel takes us across the stunning and dangerous world of volcanic wines. He details each volcano's most famous eruptions, the grapes that grow in its soils, and the people who make their homes on its slopes, adapting to an ever-menacing landscape. In addition to introducing the history and geology of these volcanoes, Frankel serves as a travel guide, offering a host of tips ranging from prominent vineyards to visit to scenic hikes in each location. This illuminating guide will be indispensable for wine lovers looking to learn more about volcanic terroirs, as well as anyone curious about how cultural heritage can survive and thrive in the shadow of geological danger.
This second edition of a global bestseller has been completely redesigned and extensively rewritten to take into account the new Quality by Design (QbD) and lifecycle concepts in pharmaceutical manufacturing. As in the first edition, the fundamental requirements for analytical method validation are covered, but the second edition describes how these are applied systematically throughout the entire analytical lifecycle. QbD principles require adoption of a systematic approach to development and validation that begin with predefined objectives. For analytical methods these predefined objectives are established as an Analytical Target Profile (ATP). The book chapters are aligned with recently introduced standards and guidelines for manufacturing processes validation and follow the three stages of the analytical lifecycle: Method Design, Method Performance Qualification, and Continued Method Performance Verification. Case studies and examples from the pharmaceutical industry illustrate the concepts and guidelines presented, and the standards and regulations from the US (FDA), European (EMA) and global (ICH) regulatory authorities are considered throughout. The undisputed gold standard in the field.
A comprehensive overview of biodegradable polymers, covering everything from synthesis, characterization, and degradation mechanisms while also introducing useful applications, such as drug delivery systems and biomaterial-based regenerative therapies. An introductory section deals with such fundamentals as basic chemical reactions during degradation, the complexity of biological environments and experimental methods for monitoring degradation processes. The result is a reliable reference source for those wanting to learn more about this important class of polymer materials, as well as scientists in the field seeking a deeper insight.
This work describes all known assays used to discover new glycopeptide antibiotics. It discusses practical techniques for screening, isolating and analyzing glycopeptide antibiotics, correlating structure-activity relationships with the mode of action. Every relevant chemical aspect of the carbohydrate components of glycopeptide antibodies is examined.
This book describes techniques of synthesis and self-assembly of macromolecules for developing new materials and improving functionality of existing ones. Because self-assembly emulates how nature creates complex systems, they likely have the best chance at succeeding in real-world biomedical applications. Employs synthetic chemistry, physical chemistry, and materials science principles and techniques Emphasizes self-assembly in solutions (particularly, aqueous solutions) and at solid-liquid interfaces Describes polymer assembly driven by multitude interactions, including solvophobic, electrostatic, and obligatory co-assembly Illustrates assembly of bio-hybrid macromolecules and applications in biomedical engineering
This three-volume set of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Parenteral Medications is an authoritative, comprehensive reference work on the formulation and manufacture of parenteral dosage forms, effectively balancing theoretical considerations with the practical aspects of their development. As such, it is recommended for scientists and engineers in the pharmaceutical industry and academia, and will also serve as an excellent reference and training tool for regulatory scientists and quality assurance professionals. First published in 1984 (as two volumes) and then last revised in 1993 (when it grew to three volumes), this latest revision will address the plethora of changes in the science and considerable advances in the technology associated with these products and routes of administration. The third edition of this book maintains the features that made the last edition so popular but comprises several brand new chapters, revisions to all other chapters, as well as high quality illustrations. Volume one presents: A historical perspective of injectable drug therapy, common routes of administration, and biopharmaceutics of NCEs and NBEs. An in-depth discussion on the preformulation and formulation of small and large molecules, including ophthalmic dosage forms. A presentation of parenteral primary packaging options - glass and plastic containers, as well as elastomeric closures. A definitive chapter on container-closure integrity. New chapters on solubility and solubilization, formulation of depot delivery systems and biophysical/biochemical characterization of proteins.
Polyurethane sealants are used in many high-volume applications such as construction and automotive. This volume provides an in-depth, illustrated survey of both the technology and applications. The detailed information will be useful to all those involved in the research, development, processing, evaluation and use of sealants for high-volume applications.
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