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This brief is devoted to providing a complete outline of meso-science by briefing the relevant contents from the published book and by updating evidences and concepts of meso-science. The importance of meso-science in solving various problems in energy, resource, and the environment is introduced. The whole evolutionary development of the EMMS principle is reviewed to show how a simple idea on the customized modeling of particle clustering in gas-solid systems was developed, verified, extended, and finally generalized into the common principle of compromise in competition between dominant mechanisms for all mesoscale phenomena in science and engineering, leading to the proposition of meso-science. More importantly, updates on the concept of meso-science and perspectives are presented, along with new insights and findings from after the publication of the original book. In this way, we hope to help readers more easily familiarize themselves with meso-science, and to trigger interest and attention to this interdisciplinary field. Application areas include: multiphase flow and fluid dynamics chemical, biochemical and process engineering mineral processing and metallurgical engineering energy and resources material science and engineering Jinghai Li is vice president of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), professor at Institute of Process Engineering of CAS. Wenlai Huang is associate professor at Institute of Process Engineering of CAS. This book has been translated into Chinese and published by Science Press, please visit here for the Chinese version: http://www.sciencep.com/s_single.php?id=35751
The authoritative reference on catalytic chemical vapor deposition, written by the inventor of the technology. This comprehensive book covers a wide scope of Cat-CVD and related technologies from the fundamentals to the many applications, including the design of a Cat-CVD apparatus. Featuring contributions from four senior leaders in the field, including the father of catalytic chemical vapor deposition, it also introduces some of the techniques used in the observation of Cat-CVD related phenomena so that readers can understand the concepts of such techniques. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition: Technology and Applications of Cat-CVD begins by reviewing the analytical tools for elucidating the chemical reactions in Cat-CVD, such as laser-induced fluorescence and deep ultra-violet absorption, and explains in detail the underlying physics and chemistry of the Cat-CVD technology. Subsequently it provides an overview of the synthesis and properties of Cat-CVD-prepared inorganic and organic thin films. The last parts of this unique book are devoted to the design and operation of Cat-CVD apparatuses and the applications. Provides coherent coverage of the fundamentals and applications of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) Assembles in one place the state of the art of this rapidly growing field, allowing new researchers to get an overview that is difficult to obtain solely from journal articles Presents comparisons of different Cat-CVD methods which are usually not found in research papers Bridges academic and industrial research, showing how CVD can be scaled up from the lab to large-scale industrial utilization in the high-tech industry. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition: Technology and Applications is an excellent one-stop resource for researchers and engineers working on or entering the field of Cat-CVD, Hot-Wire CVD, iCVD, and related technologies.
Nuclear receptors are the site of action for some of the most
widely used medications, namely oral contraceptives and related
drugs derived from steroid hormones. Recent research has uncovered
their pivotal role in a range of human diseases, including diabetes
and metabolic syndrome, triggering a new wave of drug discovery
efforts focused on this class of molecular targets.
Focusing on the effects of porosity and microcracking on the physical properties of ceramics, particularly nominally single phase ceramics, this comprehensive reference/text elucidates the fundamental interrelationships determining the development and use of materials for actual and potential engineering needs. Aids in the understanding of porosity effects on other materials from ceramic composites, cements, and plasters to rocks, metals, and polymers Providing the reader with helpful chapter summaries and recommendations, Porosity of Ceramics details the porosity dependence of mechanical properties, as well as thermal and electrical conductivity, surface area, and permeability of pore systems reviews new and promising applications and processing technologies as well as the engineering trade-offs involved in producing improved porosities assesses the applicability and limits of models and actual experimental data using pore and microcrack occurrence, characterization, and idealization as bases emphasizes the need for better characterization by addressing generally overlooked topics, such as pore orientation, shape and size heterogeneity, and spatial distribution and much more Complemented with bibliographic citations and over 275 tables, equations, drawings, and photographs, Porosity of Ceramics is an invaluable reference for materials, ceramic, mechanical, and chemical engineers and scientists; and metallurgists; as well as a readily accessible text for graduate-level and continuing education students in these disciplines.
Drug resistance is a fundamental factor in treatment failure in diseases like leishmaniasis, although additional factors also play a role in this phenomenon. This volume is the second edition of a well-received book that provides a comprehensive update on the pathology of the disease, as well as on the concept of parasitic drug resistance, its molecular basis, consequences and possible treatments. A valuable resource for scientists both from academia and industry involved in biomedical research and drug design, the book provides the knowledge needed to understand leishmaniasis and to contibute to combatting this disease worldwide.
Good packaging improves the presentation of a foodstuff, increasing its market value as well as convenience in handling. Packaging can perform three functions: it acts as a container, enabling a chosen quantity of a product to be handled as a unit during distribution and storage; it helps to protect against damage and spoilage; and it can communicate information about the contents.;"Packaging" discusses these functions in detail and looks at traditional and mechanized packaging systems for use by small-scale producers. Case studies from around the world examine the introduction of improved packaging technology, and there are useful lists of manufacturers and organizations which can help small businesses. This book is part of the "Food Cycle Technology Source Books Series". Designed for people who have no technical background or previous knowledge of the technologies, the titles in this series offer information on existing ways of improving the technology of food processing and increasing the quality and range of foodstuffs produced.
This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale. The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum equipment choices for the production, handling and storage of particulate materials. An advantage of this approach is that unit operations that are common in one field of application are made accessible to other fields. The overall focus is on industrial application and the book includes some concrete examples. The book is an essential resource for students or researchers who work in collaboration with manufacturing industries or who are planning to make the switch from academia to industry.
An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization) and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale).
A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work.
Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debonding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the overall buckling of the structure. Finally, several numerical examples that evaluates the qualities and capabilities of the general model formulated are offered in this book.
This book is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge of composite structures behavior.
This monograph discusses in detail the compacting conditions and the resultant structure and properties of metals, composites and ceramics. It covers the basic aspects of science and technology of explosive compaction. Comprise chapters on Shock Waves in Matter, Technology of Explosive Compaction, Explosive Compaction of Metallic Powders, Explosive Compaction of Composites, Explosive Compaction of Ceramic and Super-Hard Materials, Industrial Applications and Directions for future Research including Shock Synthesis of New Materials. The coverage is extensive and the style is simple. A number of figures and micrographs enrich the presentation further. This monograph is well structured to be a textbook to students of engineering in colleges and universities and to engineers interested in using this technology.
This book was conceived from a simple question as to why cancer is so difficult to treat. Ultimately we want to find ways to cure cancers, but that may be an elusive dream at least with the technologies we have now and expect to have in the near future. This leads the question of whether it is possible to improve current cancer treatment methods, especially from the perspective of enhancing targeted drug delivery to tumors. This volume is designed to provide information related to the difficulties in treating cancers through targeted drug delivery, our current understanding of cancer biology, and potential technologies that might be used to achieve enhanced drug delivery to tumors. An ideal drug delivery system for treating cancers would maximize the therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects in clinical applications. The seemingly improved anticancer efficacy of the current nanoparticle-based formulations needs to be viewed from the context of very poor success rates for translation to human applications. The results of in vitro cell culture models and small animal in vivo experiments have not been extrapolated to clinical applications. Finding the reasons for the lack of successful translation is required if we are to discover approaches to substantially extend the survival time of cancer patients, and hopefully identify cures. Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery: Elusive Dream describes some answers of achieving the so far elusive dream of treating cancers like other chronic diseases with therapies that focus using improved drug delivery systems designed to better align with the unique biological and physiological properties of cancer.
Fats are present in some form in the vast majority of processed foods we consume, as well as in many natural products. Changes in consumer behaviour, centered around an increased emphasis on healthy food consumption, mean that it is more important than ever for food scientists to understand the properties, roles and behaviours that fats play in food and in diets. Fats in Food Technology, Second Edition is an in-depth examination of the roles and behaviours of fats in food technology and the benefits that they impart to consumers. It considers both fats that are naturally present in foods (such as milk fat in cheese) and fats that have been added to improve physical, chemical and organoleptic properties (like cocoa butter in chocolate). Newly revised and updated, the book contains useful information on the market issues that have driven change and the disciplines that have helped to regulate the trade and use of fats and oils in food technology. Drawing on the recent literature as well as the personal R&D experiences of the authors, the book highlights those areas where potential efficiencies in processing and economy in the cost of raw materials can be made. Issues concerning health, diet and lifestyle are covered in dedicated chapters. This book will be useful to anyone in industry and research establishments who has an interest in the technology of fat-containing food products, including scientists in the dairy, spreads, bakery, confectionery and wider food industries, as well those involved in the production of edible oils.
Is the future of food looking bleak - or better than ever? At a time when every day brings news of drought and famine, Amanda Little investigates what it will take to feed a hotter, hungrier, more crowded world. She explores the past along with the present and discovers startling innovations: remote-control crops, vertical farms, robot weedkillers, lab-grown meat, 3D-printed meals, water networks run by supercomputers, cloud seeding and sensors that monitor the microclimate of individual plants. She meets the creative and controversial minds changing the face of modern food production, and tackles fears over genetic modification with hard facts. The Fate of Food is a fascinating look at the threats and opportunities that lie ahead as we struggle for food security. Faced with a perilous future, it gives us reason to hope.
This useful book reviews and analyzes the rigorous scientific, regulatory, and clinical testing and evaluation applied to the widely used food additive aspartame. In one compact volume you gain access to extensive information illustrating the increased recognition by regulatory agencies of the usefulness of human studies in evaluating new food additives. The Clinical Evaluation of a Food Additive: Assessment of Aspartame begins by describing the nuts and bolts of food additive safety evaluation in humans, including an insightful historical perspective of the development of good clinical practice guidelines. It provides the regulatory requirements for human research, as well as key elements for the design and conduct of human studies. The scientific and regulatory considerations of food additive safety are explored, including interesting descriptions of aspartame's key animal safety studies. In addition, the book reviews the medical postmarketing surveillance system developed for identifying and evaluating reports of aspartame's alleged adverse health effects. Through meticulous research and systematic clarity, The Clinical Evaluation of a Food Additive: Assessment of Aspartame provides work-saving, state-of-the-art examples to guide future testing and evaluation of tomorrow's food additives.
Supramolecular catalysis is involved in assimilation or growth of biological products and it has advantages over conventional catalysis in dealing with systems beyond molecules to mimic the biological catalytic processes. Principles and Advances in Supramolecular Catalysis shows how a supramolecular catalytic reaction proceeds and how interactions among molecules provide vessels or specific binding sites to carry out chemical reactions. The utilities of such catalytic reactions in waste, hazard management, medicine, food, etc. are explained in this book. The book focuses on examples to provide a fundamental basis so that, in the future, supramolecular catalytic reactions are utilised in the field of chemical, biological, biophysical sciences and technologies. Features: Discusses fundamental and interdisciplinary aspects of supramolecular catalysis Narrates mechano-chemical and stimuli-guided supramolecular catalytic reactions Divulges the intriguing aspects of self-replications and self-assembling performed through supramolecular catalysis Incorporates supramolecular catalytic reactions of metal-organic frameworks as artificial metalloenzymes
This volume emphasizes the growing need for wood products with advanced engineering properties. It details the fundamental principles of cellulose technology and presents current techniques to modifying the basic chemistry of lignocellulosic materials. The work: discusses the cost-efficient use of cellulose derivatives in a variety of commodities; highlights the chemical modification of wood by methods such as etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers recent progress in the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wood; and more.
Chemical engineers face the challenge of learning the difficult concept and application of entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. By following a visual approach and offering qualitative discussions of the role of molecular interactions, Koretsky helps them understand and visualize thermodynamics. Highlighted examples show how the material is applied in the real world. Expanded coverage includes biological content and examples, the Equation of State approach for both liquid and vapor phases in VLE, and the practical side of the 2nd Law. Engineers will then be able to use this resource as the basis for more advanced concepts.
Multiphase polymeric systems include a wide range of materials such as composites, blends, alloys, gels, and interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). A one-stop reference on multiphase polymer systems, this book fully covers the preparation, properties, and applications of advanced multiphase systems from macro to nano scales. Edited by well-respected academics in the field of multiphase polymer systems, the book includes contributions from leading international experts. An essential resource for plastic and rubber technologists, filler specialists and researchers in fields studying thermal and electrical properties.
Gracey?s Meat Hygiene, Eleventh Edition is the definitive reference for veterinarians working in meat hygiene control. This new edition of a classic text reflects the recent significant changes in science, legislation and practical implementation of meat hygiene controls in the UK, Europe and worldwide since the 10th edition was published in 1999. An excellent practical guide for teaching food hygiene to veterinary students worldwide, in addition to laying the foundations of food animal anatomy, pathology and disease. New chapters address the increased concern of both the public and inspectors to issues of animal welfare and recognise the role of the profession, and interest from the consumer, in environmental protection. Key features include: Fully updated new edition, in a refreshed design with colour photographs and illustrations throughout. Includes new content on meat hygiene inspection covering the components of an integrated food safety management system as well as animal health and welfare controls in the ?farm to fork? system. A practical approach to health and safety in meat processing is outlined by identifying the hazards and then describing how these can best be controlled. With contributions from veterinary and industry experts, this edition is both a valuable teaching aid and a practical reference for veterinarians and all food business operators and their staff.
A comprehensive overview of biodegradable polymers, covering everything from synthesis, characterization, and degradation mechanisms while also introducing useful applications, such as drug delivery systems and biomaterial-based regenerative therapies. An introductory section deals with such fundamentals as basic chemical reactions during degradation, the complexity of biological environments and experimental methods for monitoring degradation processes. The result is a reliable reference source for those wanting to learn more about this important class of polymer materials, as well as scientists in the field seeking a deeper insight.
This work describes all known assays used to discover new glycopeptide antibiotics. It discusses practical techniques for screening, isolating and analyzing glycopeptide antibiotics, correlating structure-activity relationships with the mode of action. Every relevant chemical aspect of the carbohydrate components of glycopeptide antibodies is examined.
The understanding of functional groups is key for the understanding of all organic chemistry. In the tradition of the Patai Series each volume treats all aspects of functional groups. Each volume contains chapters on the theoretical and physicochemical foundations; on analytical aspects; on reaction mechanisms; on applications in synthesis. Depending on the functional group there are additional chapters on industrial use, on medical use, and on human and environmental toxicity issues. The last volume in the series on the topic (Peroxides Vol. 2) was published in 2006. In the eight years since then a lot of developments have taken place, especially in the areas of synthesis, analysis and a better theoretical understanding of the reaction mechanism, all of which are covered here. As with all new volumes, the chapters are first published online in Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups. Once a volume is completed online, it is then published in print format. The printed book offers the traditional quality of the Patai Book Series, complete with an extensive index.
This three-volume set of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Parenteral Medications is an authoritative, comprehensive reference work on the formulation and manufacture of parenteral dosage forms, effectively balancing theoretical considerations with the practical aspects of their development. As such, it is recommended for scientists and engineers in the pharmaceutical industry and academia, and will also serve as an excellent reference and training tool for regulatory scientists and quality assurance professionals. First published in 1984 (as two volumes) and then last revised in 1993 (when it grew to three volumes), this latest revision will address the plethora of changes in the science and considerable advances in the technology associated with these products and routes of administration. The third edition of this book maintains the features that made the last edition so popular but comprises several brand new chapters, revisions to all other chapters, as well as high quality illustrations. Volume one presents: A historical perspective of injectable drug therapy, common routes of administration, and biopharmaceutics of NCEs and NBEs. An in-depth discussion on the preformulation and formulation of small and large molecules, including ophthalmic dosage forms. A presentation of parenteral primary packaging options - glass and plastic containers, as well as elastomeric closures. A definitive chapter on container-closure integrity. New chapters on solubility and solubilization, formulation of depot delivery systems and biophysical/biochemical characterization of proteins.
Provides complete and undiluted knowledge on making inorganic polymers functional. This comprehensive book reflects the state of the art in the field of inorganic polymers, based on research conducted by a number of internationally leading research groups working in this area. It covers the synthesis aspects of synthetic inorganic polymers and looks at multiple inorganic monomers as building blocks, which exhibit unprecedented electronic, redox, photo-emissive, magnetic, self-healing and catalytic properties. It also looks at the applications of inorganic polymers in areas such as optoelectronics, energy storage, industrial chemistry, and biology. Beginning with an overview of the use of smart inorganic polymers in daily life, Smart Inorganic Polymers: Synthesis, Properties and Emerging Applications in Materials and Life Sciences goes on to study the synthesis, properties, and applications of polymers incorporating different heteroelements such as boron, phosphorus, silicon, germanium, and tin. The book also examines inorganic polymers in flame-retardants, as functional materials, and in biology. An excellent addition to the polymer scientists' and synthetic chemists' toolbox Summarizes the state of the art on how to make and use functional inorganic polymers, from synthesis to applications Edited by the coordinator of a highly funded European community research program (COST action) that focuses specifically on the exploration of inorganic polymers Features contributions from top experts in the field Aimed at academics and industrial researchers in this field, Smart Inorganic Polymers: Synthesis, Properties and Emerging Applications in Materials and Life Sciences will also benefit scientists who want to get a better overview on the state-of-the-art of this rapidly advancing area.
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