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Steroid dimers are an important group of compounds produced by various marine organisms, and also synthesized in the laboratories. This group of compounds possesses various pharmacological and biological properties, and can also be used to create "molecular umbrellas" for drug delivery.
"Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery" provides an up-to-date overview on the chemistry and applications of steroid dimers of natural and synthetic origins. The book includes easy-to-follow synthetic protocols for various classes of important dimeric steroids, source details, valuable spectroscopic data and depiction of unique structural features of natural steroidal dimers, and the Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) of some pharmacologically active dimeric steroids. Topics covered include: introduction to steroid dimers synthesis and chemistry of noncyclic and cyclic steroid dimersnaturally occurring steroid dimers - cephalostatins, ritterazines and crellastatinsbiological and pharmacological functions of steroid dimers and their application in drug design and discoverysteroid dimers as "molecular umbrellas" for drug delivery"Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery" is an essential guide to this important class of natural and synthetic compounds for researchers and students of natural products chemistry and biochemistry, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry, and drug design, discovery and delivery.
Agrochemicals are an essential requirement to boost farm productivity. They also ensure crop quality. As a consequence, we cannot wish away the use of agrochemicals in our food crops, fruits, vegetables etc. Therefore, the entire food basket is also a basket of pesticides, because none of the mass consumption vegetables and fruits grown today anywhere in the world is without extensive use of agrochemicals at some stage of production and/or shipment. Further, in heavily populated, developing countries, one has to coax the land to feed the growing number of mouths. Enhancing land productivity is a constant worry and the usage of agrochemicals is quite steep. Therefore, there is a trade-off between land productivity and risk from the amount of pesticide usage/residues in food crops/plants. And there is a need to be realistic, while being careful. Agrochemicals' residue in food and food safety is an all pervading issue in several countries today that affects everybody's lives. This book is an eye-opener, detailing contamination in our food basket with accounts of Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) norms, toxicological thresholds and notable experiences. It promotes an awareness of the agrochemicals-food safety debate. The objective of the book is to provide information about the agrochemicals-food safety debate, giving accounts of ADI norms, toxicological thresholds and notable experiences to enable percolation of learning lessons. It is also an attempt to circulate amongst a larger group of readers a collection of contemporary research and cases of the impact of agrochemicals on the entire food basket.
Written by an excellent, highly experienced and motivated team of lecturers, this textbook is based on one of the most successful courses in catalysis and as such is tried-and-tested by generations of graduate and PhD students. It covers all essential aspects of this important topic, including homogeneous, heterogeneous and biocatalysis, but also kinetics, reactor design and engineering. The perfect source of information for graduate and PhD students in chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as for scientists wanting to refresh their knowledge.
Microscopy plays an integral role in the research and development of new medicines. Pharmaceutical Microscopy describes a wide variety of techniques together with numerous practical applications of importance in drug development. The first section presents general methods and applications with an emphasis on the physical science aspects. Techniques covered include optical crystallography, thermal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, microspectroscopy (infrared and Raman), and particle size and shape by image analysis. The second section presents applications of these techniques to specific topics of pharmaceutical interest, including studies of polymorphism, particle size and shape analysis, and contaminant identification. Pharmaceutical Microscopy is designed for those scientists who must use these techniques to solve pharmaceutical problems but do not need to become expert microscopists. Consequently, each section has exercises designed to teach the reader how to use and apply the techniques in the book. Although the focus is on pharmaceutical development, workers in other fields such as food science and organic chemistry will also benefit from the discussion of techniques and the exercises. Provides comprehensive coverage of key microscopy techniques used in pharmaceutical development Helps the reader to solve specific problems in pharmaceutical quality assurance Oriented and designed for pharmaceutical scientists who need to use microscopy but are not expert microscopists Includes a large number of practical exercises to give the reader hands-on experience with the techniques Written by an author with 21 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry
This book details the relationships between microstructure, interface roughness, and properties of thermal barrier coatings. The author proposes a method for the reduction of the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer in order to increase the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings. He includes models for the optimization of ceramic layer microstructure and interface roughness.
The pharmaceutical applications of powder technology have long been recognized. Yet while many books focus on aspects of powder formation and behavior, there has been no text that explores the power of particulate science in the design, manufacture, and control of quality medicines. Until now. A Guide to Pharmaceutical Particulate Science discusses key principles of particulate science and their practical applications. The authors cover particulate material, its form and production, sampling from bodies of powder, particle size descriptors and statistics, behavior of particles, instrumental analysis, particle size measurement and synergy of adopted techniques, physical behavior of a powder, and in vitro and in vivo performance criteria. They draw the components of particulate science into a single concise description of their current and potential uses in product development. Exploring the growth in knowledge of particle properties and the variety of technological advances in particle manufacture, A Guide to Pharmaceutical Particulate Science gives readers the tools they need to grasp the science and its use in the industry.
The second edition of the book begins with the description of the diversity of wine-related microorganisms, followed by an outline of their primary and energy metabolism. Subsequently, important aspects of the secondary metabolism are dealt with, since these activities have an impact on wine quality and off-flavour formation. Then chapters about stimulating and inhibitory growth factors follow. This knowledge is helpful for the growth management of different microbial species. The next chapters focus on the application of the consolidated findings of molecular biology and regulation the functioning of regulatory cellular networks, leading to a better understanding of the phenotypic behaviour of the microbes in general and especially of the starter cultures as well as of stimulatory and inhibitory cell-cell interactions during wine making. In the last part of the book, a compilation of modern methods complete the understanding of microbial processes during the conversion of must to wine.This broad range of topics about the biology of the microbes involved in the vinification process could be provided in one book only because of the input of many experts from different wine-growing countries.
This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.
In the process industry, shutdown and turnaround costs are responsible for an excessive amount of maintenance expenses. Process Plants: Shutdown and Turnaround Management explores various types of shutdowns, presents recommendations for better management, and offers feasible solutions to help reduce overheads. Because turnaround management is the largest maintenance activity, plant turnaround is the focal point of this text. The book details a plan to lengthen the interval between turnarounds, and curtail costs in process production management by at least 30 percent.
This practical guidebook provides a thorough study of shutdown management, discusses different types of shutdown and managing events (emergency, unplanned, planned, and turnaround), and covers all aspects of plant turnaround management including startup, shutdown, and maintenance. It describes the five phases of shutdown management initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing. It contains specific principles and precautions for successful shutdown planning, and highlights many aspects including turnaround philosophy, planning and scheduling, estimation, contractor management, execution, safety management, managing human resources, and post shut down review.
Process Plants: Shutdown and Turnaround Management also includes topical information that readers can successfully apply to future shutdown projects. It is suitable for industry professionals and graduate students."
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations. Readers will arrive at a comprehensive understanding of various mercury emission control methods that are suitable for industrial applications. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of energy science and technology, environmental science and technology and chemical engineering.
This book provides detailed methods to reduce or eliminate damage caused by corrosion; explains the human and environmental costs of corrosion; explains causes of and various types of corrosion; summarizes the costs of corrosion in different industries, including bridges, mining, petroleum refining, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, agricultural, food processing, electronics, home appliances; and discusses the technical aspects of the various methods available to detect, prevent, and control corrosion.
This thesis addresses the development of a new force spectroscopy tool, correlation force spectroscopy (CFS) for the measurement of the properties of very small volumes of material (molecular to m3) at kHz-MHz frequency range. CFS measures the simultaneous thermal fluctuations of two closely-spaced atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers. CFS then calculates the cross-correlation in the thermal fluctuations that gives the mechanical properties of the matter that spans the gap of the two cantilevers. The book also discusses development of CFS, its advantages over AFM, and its application in single molecule force spectroscopy and micro-rheology.
This Brief highlights different approaches used to create stable cellulase and its use in different fields. Cellulase is an industrial enzyme with a broad range of significant applications in biofuel production and cellulosic waste management. Cellulase 7a from Trichoderma reesei is the most efficient enzyme in the bio hydrolysis of cellulose. In order to improve its thermal stability, it can be engineered using a variety of approaches, such as hydrophobic interactions, aromatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, ion pairs and disulfide bridge creation.
Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e.g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.
This book presents cutting-edge research on the design and development of novel, advanced high-strength, light-weight materials via the incorporation of novel reinforcements, namely, metallic amorphous alloys/bulk metallic glasses (BMG), in light metal matrix composites (LMMCs) based on Al and Mg. The book begins with an introduction to conventional ceramic reinforced light metal matrix composites, along with the major drawbacks which limit their application. Metallic amorphous alloys/Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) are new class of metallic materials that are distinctly differently from conventional metals/alloys in terms of their structure and thermal behavior, and exhibit extremely high strength (1 to 2 GPa) and large elastic strain limit (1 to 2%). Given these unique properties, upon their incorporation into Al/Mg-matrices, they provide superior interfacial properties, i.e. high degree of compatibility with the matrix due to their metallic nature when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements, and thereby significantly enhance the mechanical performance of LMMCs. Amorphous/BMG reinforced LMMCs is an emerging research field and the existing literature is meager. This book discusses the various processing methods that would be suitable for these novel materials. A comparison of mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms of amorphous/BMG reinforced composites with those of conventional ceramic composites is presented. Future research directions and wider research potential of the novel materials are discussed, and prospective applications are highlighted. For ease of understanding and comparison, appropriate schematics, tables, and figures are provided.
Intended as a first year text, no prior knowledge of perfumery is assumed, and the authors provide integrated coverage of topics from raw materials to supermarket shelves, from science to creation and through to marketing and business policy. The power of fragrances to communicate is strongly emphasized and an explicit framework of vocabulary provided. Detailed discussion is included of the new product development proess and hte central role of the perfume brief. For this edition, all chapters have been revised and the book is intended for any writer or researcher wishing to consider any issues relating to fragranced products.
This Brief will review the methods that are currently available for the detection, isolation, and typing of pathogenic E. coli with a particular focus on foodborne diseases caused by the Shiga toxigenic E. coli group, which have been implicated in a number of significant outbreaks in recent years. Pathogenic forms of E. coli can cause a variety of diarrheal diseases in hosts due to the presence of specific colonization and virulence factors, and pathogenicity-associated genes, which are generally not present in other E. coli. Six pathotypes of pathogenic E. coli are recognized (Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli, Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteroaggregative E. coli and Diffusely Adherent E. coli) and certain strains among these groups are major public health concerns due to the severity of disease that they can cause. Methods to detect and isolate these pathogens from a variety of sources are constantly evolving. In addition, the accumulation of knowledge on these pathogens allows for improved intervention strategies.
This book is first of its kind exclusively dedicated to plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), highlighting their importance in the food processing industry. By reviewing the scientific developments of the past several decades, it offers a comprehensive overview of various aspects of plant PPOs, including chemistry, structure, functions, regulation, genetics/genomics and molecular aspects. PPOs are copper-containing proteins found in several plant species that catalyze the hydroxylation of o-monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of the o-dihydroxyphenols to o-quinones. Further, the quonines undergo self-polymerization or react with amines/thiol groups to produce brown/dark coloration of products. All the PPOs contain two Cu-binding sites (CuA and CuB) as their central domain, these interact with phenolic substrates and molecular oxygen. Several of the plant PPOs contain an N-terminal transit peptide (~80-100 amino acids ) necessary for plastid import. The PPOs occur in latent form that are activated by various treatments including acid and base shock, exposure to detergents or proteolytic degradation. The pH optimum of PPOs varies widely depending upon different plant species but is usually ~4.0 - 8.0. Similarly, the optimum temperature also varies as per the source and substrate involved ranging from 30 to 45 DegreesC. Multiple PPO isoforms have been reported in several plant species, and the chromosomal location of PPOs has also been studied in some species. The physiological role (s) of PPOs is not entirely understood, but they could be involved in defense-related functions in plants. From an applied perspective, PPOs are implicated in enzymatic browning/darkening of cereal products, vegetables and fruits. Interestingly, browning is preferred in some instances like the processing of black tea, cocoa, and coffee as it enhances their quality by forming flavorful products. There have b een initiatives to specifically breed and develop cultivars with reasonably low PPO levels in the mature grain or fruit. Further, several types of inhibitors that reduce the PPO activity have also been identified. Despite their commercial/economic importance and the availability of literature on different aspects of PPOs in different plant species, this is the first book to provide basic information regarding PPOs. It is a valuable resource for researchers involved in quality-related research specifically in crops, vegetables and fruits. Further, as PPOs are also implicated in defense- or stress-related functions, the book is also useful to breeders, pathologists, molecular biologists, physiologists and entomologists.
Glass and State Transitions in Food and Biological Materials describes how glass transition has been applied to food micro-structure, food processing, product development, storage studies, packaging development and other areas. This book has been structured so that readers can initially grasp the basic principles and instrumentation, before moving through the various applications. In summary, the book will provide the missing link between food science and material science/polymer engineering. This will allow food scientists to better understand the concept and applications of thermal properties.
Contains current American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/Food and Drug Administration (AAPS/FDA) guidelines for the experimentation and analysis of in vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption This up-to-the-minute reference provides comprehensive coverage of the latest advances in the development, preparation, and application of topical and transdermal therapeutic systems-exploring the biochemistry and treatment of various skin diseases as well as the structure and function of the skin, adverse dermal responses to drug formulations, mechanisms of drug transport through barrier membranes, and methods for measuring and modulating percutaneous permeation. Offers contemporary discussions on the bioequivalence of dermatological and transdermal dosage forms With more than 1800 useful references and 350 illustrations, tables, and equations, Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations is an essential source for cosmetic and pharmaceutical scientists, dermatologists, toxicologists, agrochemists, regulatory agency personnel, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
There is a clear need for innovative technologies to improve the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the body. Recent breakthroughs in nanomedicine are now making it possible to deliver drugs and therapeutic proteins to local areas of disease or tumors to maximize clinical benefit while limiting unwanted side effects. Nanomedicine in Drug Delivery gives an overview of aspects of nanomedicine to help readers design and develop novel drug delivery systems and devices that build on nanoscale technologies. Featuring contributions by leading researchers from around the world, the book examines: The integration of nanoparticles with therapeutic agents The synthesis and characterization of nanoencapsulated drug particles Targeted pulmonary nanomedicine delivery using inhalation aerosols The use of biological systems-bacteria, cells, viruses, and virus-like particles-as carriers to deliver nanoparticles Nanodermatology and the role of nanotechnology in the diagnosis and treatment of skin disease Nanoparticles for the delivery of small molecules, such as for gene and vaccine delivery The use of nanotechnologies to modulate and modify wound healing Nanoparticles in bioimaging, including magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and molecular imaging Nanoparticles to enhance the efficiency of existing anticancer drugs The development of nanoparticle formulations Nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery Nanoparticle toxicity, including routes of exposure and mechanisms of toxicity The use of animal and cellular models in nanoparticles safety studies With its practical focus on the design, synthesis, and application of nanomedicine in drug delivery, this book is a valuable resource for clinical researchers and anyone working to tackle the challenges of delivering drugs in a more targeted and efficient manner. It explores a wide range of promising approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases using cutting-edge nanotechnologies.
This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.
This book, divided in ten chapters, deals with topics like significance of food hygiene, quality and safety in hospitality industry, food microbiology, various microorganisms & their growth, causes and prevention of foodborne diseases. It explains the concept of purchase, receiving and storage of food ingredients in food service establishments, hygienic handling of food in food service operations. It also includes topics like personal hygiene, safety issues in catering establishments like fire & accident prevention/control and first-aid. It highlights how locations for catering outlet are selected and planned from sanitation point of view. It further deals with topics like cleaning & disinfection of premises, dishwashing, cleaning agents, pest control, importance of water, waste and sewage disposal. Various food laws and regulations like international regulations pertaining to food and new food laws of India (Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006), Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and other national & international food regulations are given in detail. It discusses food adulteration and its method of detection & control, and focuses on concepts of labeling & traceability and types & trends in packaging. It deals with Quality Assurance, Codex Alimentarius, GHP, GMP TQM, ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 22000 and its importance, quality and international food standards. The concept of HACCP and its applications in food establishments are explained in detail. It highlights genetically modified food, its safety concerns and advantages & disadvantages, role of biotechnology & food security, risk assessment and risk management of food. For further reference readers may refer to HACCP: Applications and its Challenges another book by the same author and publisher. Salient Features: Explores key elements of food safety & quality with fundamental theoretical concepts & techniques for food operation in hospitality sector. Deals with latest food safety techniques, food laws, regulations, practices and standards followed worldwide. Emerging international issue of concern in food sector.
Part I: Fundamentals of ultrasound This part will cover the main basic principles of ultrasound generation and propagation and those phenomena related to low and high intensity ultrasound applications. The mechanisms involved in food analysis and process monitoring and in food process intensification will be shown. Part II: Low intensity ultrasound applications Low intensity ultrasound applications have been used for non-destructive food analysis as well as for process monitoring. Ultrasonic techniques, based on velocity, attenuation or frequency spectrum analysis, may be considered as rapid, simple, portable and suitable for on-line measurements. Although industrial applications of low-intensity ultrasound, such as meat carcass evaluation, have been used in the food industry for decades, this section will cover the most novel applications, which could be considered as highly relevant for future application in the food industry. Chapters addressing this issue will be divided into three subsections: (1) food control, (2) process monitoring, (3) new trends. Part III: High intensity ultrasound applications High intensity ultrasound application constitutes a way to intensify many food processes. However, the efficient generation and application of ultrasound is essential to achieving a successful effect. This part of the book will begin with a chapter dealing with the importance of the design of efficient ultrasonic application systems. The medium is essential to achieve efficient transmission, and for that reason the particular challenges of applying ultrasound in different media will be addressed. The next part of this section constitutes an up-to-date vision of the use of high intensity ultrasound in food processes. The chapters will be divided into four sections, according to the medium in which the ultrasound vibration is transmitted from the transducers to the product being treated. Thus, solid, liquid, supercritical and gas media have been used for ultrasound propagation. Previous books addressing ultrasonic applications in food processing have been based on the process itself, so chapters have been divided in mass and heat transport, microbial inactivation, etc. This new book will propose a revolutionary overview of ultrasonic applications based on (in the authors opinion) the most relevant factor affecting the efficiency of ultrasound applications: the medium in which ultrasound is propagated. Depending on the medium, ultrasonic phenomena can be completely different, but it also affects the complexity of the ultrasonic generation, propagation and application. In addition, the effect of high intensity ultrasound on major components of food, such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids will be also covered, since this type of information has not been deeply studied in previous books. Other aspects related to the challenges of food industry to incorporate ultrasound devices will be also considered. This point is also very important since, in the last few years, researchers have made huge efforts to integrate fully automated and efficient ultrasound systems to the food production lines but, in some cases, it was not satisfactory. In this sense, it is necessary to identify and review the main related problems to efficiently produce and transmit ultrasound, scale-up, reduce cost, save energy and guarantee the production of safe, healthy and high added value foods.
Students will be led step-by-step through a chemical engineering project that illustrates important aspects of the discipline and how they are connected. At each step, they will be presented with a new aspect of chemical engineering and have the opportunity to use what they have learned to solve engineering problems and make engineering decisions. The overview of chemical engineering presented in Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow, 1st Edition helps rstudents to form a conceptual "skeleton" of the discipline. It has an increased focus on contemporary applications of chemical engineering. Brief statements about the leadership role of chemical engineering have been added regarding the many challenges that come with it. Discussions have been added to the end of most chapters providing examples of how topics in the chapter are applied to current problems of society to help motivate student study of the topics.
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