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Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its performance. Applications of solar thermal energy are reviewed in detail from passive applications, for example the solar chimney, to active, such as the solar (power) tower, flat plate water heater, and solar thermal electricity generation. Consistency of analysis between the solar thermal applications is used enabling the reader to fully appreciate similarities and dissimilarities between these technologies. Ultimately, the scientist or engineer can understand existing systems, either photovoltaic or solar thermal devices, and design their own technology given the information in this book.
A complete guide to the evolving methods by which we may recover by-products and significantly reduce food waste Across the globe, one third of cereals and almost half of all fruits and vegetables go to waste. The cost of such waste - both to economies and to the environment - is a serious and increasing concern within the food industry. If we are to overcome this crisis and move towards a sustainable future, we must do everything possible to utilize innovative new methods of extracting and processing valuable by-products of all kinds. Food Wastes and By-products represents a complete primer to this important and complex process. Edited and written by leading researchers, the text provides essential information on the supply of waste and its composition, identifies foods rich in valuable bioactive compounds, and explores revolutionary methods for creating by-products from fruit, vegetable, and seed waste. Other chapters discuss the nutraceutical properties of value-added by-products and their uses in the manufacturing of dietary fibers, food flavors, supplements, pectin, and more. This book: Explains how reconstituted by-products can best be used to radically reduce food waste Discusses the potential nutraceutical assets of recovered food waste Covers a broad range of by-product sources, such as mangos, cacao, flaxseed, and spent coffee grounds Describes novel extraction processes and the emerging use of nanotechnology A significant contribution to the field, Food Wastes and By-products is a timely and essential resource for food industry professionals, government agencies and NGOs involved in nutrition, agriculture, and food production, and university instructors and students in related areas.
Imaging technologies are receiving much attention in the pharmaceutical industry because of their potential for accelerating drug discovery and development. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging is one of the principal modalities since it allows anatomical, functional, metabolic, and to a certain extent even target-related information to be gathered in vivo at high resolution, favoring the characterization of a disease state and the corresponding drug intervention. The non-invasiveness of MR strengthens the link between preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical research, contributing to improve the characterization of compound effects in early stages of the discovery process in order to increase the chances of success in later phases of drug development. Edited by a leading researcher in MR technology, with contributions from foremost experts in academia and the pharmaceutical industry, this title illustrates the use of MR techniques throughout the drug discovery and development process, from target identification and validation to clinical studies. Numerous chapters focus on individual disease areas, including neurological, cardiac, and pulmonary disorders, cancer studies, diabetes, arthritis, solid organ transplantation, and stem cell-based therapies, showing that different imaging solutions are needed for specific organs.
"Natural Products in the Chemical Industry" is not a conventional textbook, but rather an invitation to join an entertaining journey that takes you into the fascinating world of natural products. This book features diverse compound classes from a number of areas: colourants, fragrances and flavourings, amino acids, pharmaceuticals, hormones, vitamins and agrochemicals. Whether you are a teacher or a scholar, an undergraduate or graduate student, a professional chemist in industry or academia, or someone just interested in natural sciences, this book allows you to be inspired and entertained by facts and information along with enjoyable anecdotes, historical, economic, political, biological and social considerations. Experts in the field can have a pleasurable time cruising through captivating synthesis methods, which enable the generation of complex molecules on industrial scale.
. deals with the manufacturing of larger quantities of complex molecules (asymmetric and heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic structures, macrocycles and small rings)
. displays all reaction schemes in colour, which makes them easy to read
. highlights aesthetics and elegance in modern industrial organic chemistry"
A bestseller in its first edition, Liquid Detergents, Second Edition captures the most significant advances since 1996, maintaining its reputation as a first-stop reference in all fundamental theories, practical applications, and manufacturing aspects of liquid detergents. Featuring new material and updates in every chapter, the book expands its coverage of emulsions to include nanoemulsions, adds new data to elucidate the rheology of current commercial detergent raw materials as compared to finished products, and offers a more complete theoretical treatment of the aggregation in non-aqueous solvents. The book now covers all rheology modifiers and thickeners for detergent applications, antibacterial and sensorial light-duty liquid products, color/fabric care and wrinkle reduction in heavy-duty liquid detergents, and household cleaning wipes in specialty liquid household surface cleaners. Rewriting the chapters on the latest improvements and growing benefits in fabric softeners, liquid hand soaps and body washes, and shampoos and conditioners, the latter contains extensive summaries of patents for various new products and technologies. The final chapter, dedicated to the manufacturing of liquid detergents, offers a discussion on continuous vs. batch processes and micro-contamination. The most comprehensive guide of its kind, Liquid Detergents, Second Edition, is a balanced and practical reference that will continue to inspire students, researchers, chemists, and product developers in detergent industry, surfactant science and industrial chemistry.
A comprehensive textbook on petrochemical conversion processes for petroleum and natural gas fractions as produced by refinery operations This innovative textbook provides essential links between the chemical sciences and chemical technology, between petrochemistry and hydrocarbon technology. The book brings alive key concepts forming the basis of chemical technology and presents a solid background for innovative process development. In all chapters, the processes described are accompanied by simplified flow schemes, encouraging students to think in terms of conceptual process designs. Petrochemistry: Petrochemical Processing, Hydrocarbon Technology and Green Engineering introduces students to a variety of topics related to the petrochemical industry, hydrocarbon processing, fossil fuel resources, as well as fuels and chemicals conversion. The first chapter covers the fundamentals and principals for designing several of the processes in the book, including discussions on thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, reactor calculations, and industrial catalysts. The following chapters address recent advances in hydrocarbon technology, energy technology, and sources of hydrocarbons. The book then goes on to discuss the petrochemical industry based on four basic pillars, all derived from petroleum and natural gas: Production of lower alkenes; other sources of lower alkenes; petrochemicals from C2-C3 alkenes Production of BTX aromatics; chemicals from BTX aromatics C1 technology Diversification of petrochemicals The growing importance of sustainable technology, process intensification and addressing greenhouse gas emissions is reflected throughout the book. Written for advanced students working in the areas of petrochemistry, hydrocarbon technology, natural gas, energy materials and technologies, alternative fuels, and recycling technologies the book is also a valuable reference for industrial practitioners in the oil and gas industry.
The definitive guide to the myriad analytical techniques available to scientists involved in biotherapeutics research Analytical Characterization of Biotherapeutics covers all current and emerging analytical tools and techniques used for the characterization of therapeutic proteins and antigen reagents. From basic recombinant antigen and antibody characterization, to complex analyses for increasingly complex molecular designs, the book explores the history of the analysis techniques and offers valuable insights into the most important emerging analytical solutions. In addition, it frames critical questions warranting attention in the design and delivery of a therapeutic protein, exposes analytical challenges that may occur when characterizing these molecules, and presents a number of tested solutions. The first single-volume guide of its kind, Analytical Characterization of Biotherapeutics brings together contributions from scientists at the leading edge of biotherapeutics research and manufacturing. Key topics covered in-depth include the structural characterization of recombinant proteins and antibodies, antibody de novo sequencing, characterization of antibody drug conjugates, characterization of bi-specific or other hybrid molecules, characterization of manufacturing host-cell contaminant proteins, analytical tools for biologics molecular assessment, and more. * Each chapter is written by a recognized expert or experts in their field who discuss current and cutting edge approaches to fully characterizing biotherapeutic proteins and antigen reagents * Covers the full range of characterization strategies for large molecule based therapeutics * Provides an up-to-date account of the latest approaches used for large molecule characterization * Chapters cover the background needed to understand the challenges at hand, solutions to characterize these large molecules, and a summary of emerging options for analytical characterization Analytical Characterization of Biotherapeutics is an up-to-date resource for analytical scientists, biologists, and mass spectrometrists involved in the analysis of biomolecules, as well as scientists employed in the pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industries. Graduate students in biology and analytical science, and their instructors will find it to be fascinating and instructive supplementary reading.
The book provides a practical understanding of basic information on extrusion in a way useful to readers without an engineering degree as well as to those new to the field. It is primarily written for extruder operators, supervisors, technical service personnel, and process engineers. Designed for on-the-job use, it guides the reader step by step through material issues, machinery, processing, and troubleshooting. This revised and extended third edition now also covers interpretation of extrusion process data, analysis of shrink void formation, dimensional variation by melt temperature fluctuations, efficient extrusion, grooved barrel extruder technology, and more.
Natural/Bio-fiber composites are emerging as a viable alternative to glass fiber composites, especially for automotive, building, and consumer product industries applications. Natural fibers are becoming one of the fastest growing additives for thermoplastics. Natural Fibers, Biopolymers, and Their Biocomposites presents comprehensive knowledge in the area of bio-fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites in one text. Chapters provide a clear understanding of the present state and the growing utility of biocomposites. Contributors are foremost experts on biobased materials and together they provide the only book available that focuses on biobased materials.
Applied Food Science and Engineering with Industrial Applications highlights the latest advances and research in the interdisciplinary field of food engineering, emphasizing food science as well as quality assurance. The volume provides detailed technical and scientific background of technologies and their potential applications in food preservation. The volume's broad perspective reflects the expertise of international and interdisciplinary engineers, drawing on that of food technologists, microbiologists, chemists, mechanical engineers, biochemists, geneticists, and others. The volume will be valuable and useful for researchers, scientists, and engineers, as well as for graduate students in this dynamic field. This book is a rich resource on recent research innovations in food science and engineering with industrial applications, presenting a practical, unique and challenging blend of principles and applications.
A GUIDE TO THE DESIGN, OPERATION, CONTROL, TROUBLESHOOTING, OPTIMIZATION AS WELL AS THE RECENT ADVANCES IN THE FIELD OF PETROCHEMICAL PROCESSES Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation is a guide to the tools and methods for energy optimization and process design. Written by a panel of experts on the topic, the book highlights the application of these methods on petrochemical technology such as the aromatics process unit. The authors describe practical approaches and tools that focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields through better design, operation, and optimization. The text is divided into sections that cover the range of essential topics: petrochemical technology description; process design considerations; reaction and separation design; process integration; process system optimization; types of revamps; equipment assessment; common operating issues; and troubleshooting case analysis. This important book: Provides the basic knowledge related to fundamentals, design, and operation for petrochemical processes Applies process integration techniques and optimization techniques that improve process design and operations in the petrochemical process Provides practical methods and tools for industrial practitioners Puts the focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields Contains information on the most recent advances in the field. Written for managers, engineers, and operators working in process industries as well as university students, Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation explains the most recent advances in the field of petrochemical processes and discusses in detail catalytic and adsorbent materials, reaction and separation mechanisms.
This third edition volume expands on the previous editions with new topics that cover drug discovery through translational bioinformatics, informatics, clinical research informatics, as well as clinical informatics. The chapters discuss new methods to study target identification, genome analysis, cheminformatics, protein analysis, and text mining. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials, software workflows, reagents and on-line resources, together with step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory and computational protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery, Third Edition is a valuable resource for anyone interested in drug design, including academicians (biologists, informaticists and data scientists, chemists, and biochemists), clinicians, and pharmaceutical scientists.
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceived through the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It is used to reveal insights into the way in which sensory properties drive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design products that best deliver what the consumer wants. It is also used at a more fundamental level to provide a wider understanding of the mechanisms involved in sensory perception and consumer behaviour. Quantitative Sensory Analysis is an in-depth and unique treatment of the quantitative basis of sensory testing, enabling scientists in the food, cosmetics and personal care product industries to gain objective insights into consumer preference data vital for informed new product development. Written by a globally-recognised learer in the field, this book is suitable for industrial sensory evaluation practitioners, sensory scientists, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in sensory evaluation and sensometricians.
This book discusses the latest research and new techniques in the field of lactic acid bacteria, including comparative genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. It also introduces the omics and functional evaluation in detail and shows the links between lactic acid bacteria and gut health and host immunity. Summarizing the biotechnological advances in lactic acid bacteria for food and health, it is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in the fields of food microbiology, bioengineering, food science, nutrition and health.
Image Analysis of Food Microstructure offers a condensed guide to the most common procedures and techniques by which quantitative microstructural information about food can be obtained from images. The images are selected from a broad range of food items, including macroscopic images of meat and finished products such as pizza, and the microstructures of cheeses, dough and baked goods, ice cream, fruits and vegetables, emulsions, foams, and gels. The book informs food scientists about the image processing and measurement tools used to characterize a variety of microstructures in foods, using high-quality image techniques to illustrate chemical composition, thermo-mechanical processing, and genetic and structural properties. These different types of images used to measure various aspects of structure include: macroscopic light photography, confocal light microscopy, electron microscopy, atomic force microscope images, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography. Then the text explains how to interpret images to produce data, plot the results in different graphs, and identify trends. Examples using these image analysis techniques show typical results that researchers can expect and recreate. Image Analysis of Food Microstructure summarizes the basic procedures that can be useful in various aspects of food research, from nutraceuticals to cooking and food processing. It presents the processing of images and mathematical principles needed for image analyses in a step-by-step approach to extract key information from the images obtained.
Examine several methods of testing for genetically modified organisms and the reasons behind their strict regulation! Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is the first study of the screening methods and tools utilized for determining the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. Leading experts in science, medicine, and government agencies examine the significant research and clinical developments in bio-engineered agriculture to bring you an accurate risk assessment of GMOs in relation to human consumption, economics, and the environment. This book focuses on three high-profile biotechnological commercial aspects of GMO inclusion in the world market: insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and virus resistance. It also identifies new GM food crops that are in the laboratory and may soon be on your table. Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods looks at GMOs from the perspectives of both sides of the globe the European Union and the United States Department of Agriculture who each have their own set of rules and opinions regarding safety issues and marketing of bioengineered food products. This book looks at the government standards of scientific testing for GMOs, and several chapters specifically analyze current screening methods. This book also explores the impact of GMOs on farming, agricultural economy, pesticide control, and world famine. Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods brings you current information on: the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology to people and the environment the regulations and protocols of testing for GMOs that have been adopted by European and United States agencies scientific techniques that test for GMOs, including certified reference materials (CRMs) and matrix-based, protein-based, and DNA-based methods of testing the limitations of today's GMO screening methods and the benefits of alternatives that may be used in the future the long-term risks associated with gene flow of GMOs to other plants, specifically focusing on liabilities, regulatory climates, and intellectual property rights Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is generously enhanced with figures, tables, and graphs as well as references at the end of every chapter. The commercialization of agricultural biotechnology makes this text essential for scientists, planners, and students of food, agriculture and environmental science. Government officials and activists will find this book invaluable in debating current issues of agricultural biotechnology and food safety.
Coverage in this annual review of the literature presents a comprehensive and critical survey of the vast field of study involving organophosphorus compounds. From phosphines and related P-C bonded compounds through tervalent phosphorus acid derivatives, phosphine chalcogenides, and recent developments in green synthetic approaches in organophosphorus chemistry, the volume reflects established and current interests in the area. With an emphasis on interdisciplinary content, this book is aimed at the worldwide organic chemistry and engineering research communities.
This handbook provides comprehensive treatment of the current state of glass science from the leading experts in the field. Opening with an enlightening contribution on the history of glass, the volume is then divided into eight parts. The first part covers fundamental properties, from the current understanding of the thermodynamics of the amorphous state, kinetics, and linear and nonlinear optical properties through colors, photosensitivity, and chemical durability. The second part provides dedicated chapters on each individual glass type, covering traditional systems like silicates and other oxide systems, as well as novel hybrid amorphous materials and spin glasses. The third part features detailed descriptions of modern characterization techniques for understanding this complex state of matter. The fourth part covers modeling, from first-principles calculations through molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical modeling. The fifth part presents a range of laboratory and industrial glass processing methods. The remaining parts cover a wide and representative range of applications areas from optics and photonics through environment, energy, architecture, and sensing. Written by the leading international experts in the field, the Springer Handbook of Glass represents an invaluable resource for graduate students through academic and industry researchers working in photonics, optoelectronics, materials science, energy, architecture, and more.
A new wind is blowing through the rich Belgian beer landscape, loosely inspired by the American and international craft beer revolution. The latest batch of Belgian brewers are reconciling tradition with experimentation in a varied, seemingly inexhaustible, stream of new beers. This book tracks the current scene and follows the author as he brews the most popular beers in his kitchen. Included here are recipes and instructions for an accessible 'brew-in-a-bag' method of making craft beer at home. You'll discover the brewing secrets of cutting edge producers like Dok Brewing Company, Resistance, Cabardouche, L'Ermitage and many others.
As a guide for pharmaceutical professionals to the issues and practices of drug discovery toxicology, this book integrates and reviews the strategy and application of tools and methods at each step of the drug discovery process. - Guides researchers as to what drug safety experiments are both practical and useful - Covers a variety of key topics - safety lead optimization, in vitro-in vivo translation, organ toxicology, ADME, animal models, biomarkers, and -omics tools - Describes what experiments are possible and useful and offers a view into the future, indicating key areas to watch for new predictive methods - Features contributions from firsthand industry experience, giving readers insight into the strategy and execution of predictive toxicology practices
This monograph provides foundations, methods, guidelines and examples for monitoring and improving resource efficiency during the operation of processing plants and for improving their design. The measures taken to improve their energy and resource efficiency are strongly influenced by regulations and standards which are covered in Part I of this book. Without changing the actual processing equipment, the way how the processes are operated can have a strong influence on the resource efficiency of the plants and this potential can be exploited with much smaller investments than needed for the introduction of new process technologies. This aspect is the focus of Part II. In Part III we discuss physical changes of the process technology such as heat integration, synthesis and realization of optimal processes, and industrial symbiosis. The last part deals with the people that are needed to make these changes possible and discusses the path towards a resource efficiency culture. Written with industrial solutions in mind, this text will benefit practitioners as well as the academic community.
Highlighting key points from the latest regulatory requirements,
New Drug Development helps those new to the world of pharmaceutical
development understand regulatory steps, reduce cost by avoiding
unnecessary trials, and attain guidance through each step of the
drug approval process. This volume acquaints readers with
procedures that determine the success of drug development projects
with updated regulatory guidelines from the FDA and ICH, solutions
to hurdles in application protocols, and recommendations from more
than 40 respected and experience officials from regulatory agencies
around the globe. It covers topics related to the development of
chiral drugs, liposomal products, and more.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a semiconductor which is composed of Mo atoms sandwiched between two layers of hexagonal close packed sulfur atoms in a structure similar to graphene. Traditionally, it has been used as a solid lubricant due to its low friction properties and as a hydrodesulfurisation catalyst to lower the sulfur content in natural gas and fuels. Bulk MoS2 were first examined as a possible hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalyst as early as 1977 by Tributsch et al. However, it was not until about 20 years later that its potential in the hydrogen evolution reaction was fully unveiled. This book discusses the synthesis, properties and industrial applications of molybdenum disulfide.
This work presents up-to-date information on chemical, pharmacological, clinical studies and historical uses of common dietary Chinese herbs. Authored by native experts in the field, the reader is introduced to each herb with a brief chronological review of Chinese literature on dietary herb uses, with chapters dedicated to each selected herb including color photos for each herb. In addition, Chinese characters as well as the Latin botanical name indices, and chemical structures for the known active compounds are also provided. The clear layout examines the health benefits that have been studied for centuries, including current clinical and toxicological data. A wide range of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbs are investigated for their suitability into daily diets for maintaining general wellness or disease prevention. In the past decades, natural health products, dietary supplements, functional foods, or nutraceuticals have emerged in the West due to the increasing demand for non-pharmaceutical healthcare products. Traditional Chinese Medicine disease prevention and treatment incorporates the use of foods, and herbal medicine in an integrated manner, and thus the dietary Chinese herbs in used in TCM for thousands of years could be sources for developing new, effective, and safe ingredients to capture the rapidly expanding opportunity in the global market place.
This book examines the fundamental concepts of multimodality small-animal molecular imaging technologies and their numerous applications in biomedical research. Driven primarily by the widespread availability of various small-animal models of human diseases replicating accurately biological and biochemical processes in vivo, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field that has excellent potential to become a powerful tool in biomedical research and drug development. In addition to being a powerful clinical tool, a number of imaging modalities including but not limited to CT, MRI, SPECT and PET are also used in small laboratory animal research to visualize and track certain molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease and neurological disorders in living small animal models of disease. In vivo small-animal imaging is playing a pivotal role in the scientific research paradigm enabling to understand human molecular biology and pathophysiology using, for instance, genetically engineered mice with spontaneous diseases that closely mimic human diseases.
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