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Shorter reaction times, higher product yields, and enhanced selectivity are some of the advantages microwave heating has over conventional methods, causing its use to transition from a curiosity to mainstream, both in industrial and academic settings. Microwave Heating as a Tool for Sustainable Chemistry showcases the application of microwave heating in a number of areas of preparative chemistry as well as in the biosciences.
From organic chemistry to materials and biological applications
The book begins with an introduction to microwave heating, the physical concepts behind it, its application in synthetic chemistry, and commercially available microwave equipment. It shows how microwave heating can be used to facilitate the clean and sustainable synthesis of organic compounds. The authors examine microwave heating as a tool for sustainable polymer chemistry, with discussions of the use of alternative solvents and feedstocks, the design of degradable polymeric materials, and recycling polymers. They then discuss the significant contribution made by microwave-promoted synthesis in the drug discovery process, with a focus on how the technology has been used to generate discovery chemistry libraries and as a tool for medicinal chemists. Other topics examined in this application-driven text include the use of microwave heating in the preparation of inorganic and organometallic compounds, in the production of inorganic materials, and in the area of biosciences.
Academic and industrial settings
The book examines the scale-up of microwave-promoted chemistry and describes the various approaches and the current commercially available microwave reactors available for scale-up. It also discusses microwave heating as a tool for teaching in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. It explores curriculum, the broad range of reactions that can be performed, and the incorporation of green chemistry principles.
The author maintains a website with supplemental information.
This book provides detailed methods to reduce or eliminate damage caused by corrosion; explains the human and environmental costs of corrosion; explains causes of and various types of corrosion; summarizes the costs of corrosion in different industries, including bridges, mining, petroleum refining, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, agricultural, food processing, electronics, home appliances; and discusses the technical aspects of the various methods available to detect, prevent, and control corrosion.
For reasons both financial and environmental, there is a perpetual need to optimize the design and operating conditions of industrial process systems in order to improve their performance, energy efficiency, profitability, safety and reliability. However, with most chemical engineering application problems having many variables with complex inter-relationships, meeting these optimization objectives can be challenging. This is where Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) is useful to find the optimal trade-offs among two or more conflicting objectives.
This book provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of MOO for modeling, design and operation of chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, energy and related processes. It then covers important theoretical and computational developments as well as specific applications such as metabolic reaction networks, chromatographic systems, CO2 emissions targeting for petroleum refining units, ecodesign of chemical processes, ethanol purification and cumene process design.
"Multi-Objective Optimization in Chemical Engineering: Developments and Applications" is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students in chemical engineering as well as industrial practitioners and engineers involved in process design, modeling and optimization.
This monograph aims to give an overview of recent chemical and
technological developments in the area of polymers and co-polymers
derived from isobutylene, which have a wide range of (industrial)
The series Topics in Current Chemistry presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemical research. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science.The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors.Readership: research chemists at universities or in industry, graduate students
In recent years, the field of pharmaceutical microbiology has experienced numerous technological advances, accompanied by the publication of new and harmonized compendial methods. It is therefore imperative for those who are responsible for monitoring the microbial quality of pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical products to keep abreast of the latest changes. Microbial Limit and Bioburden Tests: Validation Approaches and Global Requirements guides readers through the various microbiological methods listed in the compendia with easy-to-follow diagrams and approaches to validations of such test methodologies. Includes New and Updated Material Now in its second edition, this work is the culmination of research and discussions with technical experts, as well as USP and FDA representatives on various topics of interest to the pharmaceutical microbiologist and those responsible for the microbial quality of products, materials, equipment, and manufacturing facilities. New in this edition is an entire chapter dedicated to the topic of biofilms and their impact on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. The subject of rapid methods in microbiology has been expanded and includes a discussion on the validation of alternative microbiological methods and a case study on microbial identification in support of a product contamination investigation. Substantially updated and revised, this book assists readers in understanding the fundamental issues associated with pharmaceutical microbiology and provides them with tools to create effective microbial contamination control and microbial testing programs for the areas under their responsibility.
A "must-have" for materials engineers, chemists, physicists, and geologists, this is one of the first "coffee-table" books in the field of glass science.
Containing over fifty beautiful micrographs, the book reflects 35 years of original research by a highly regarded authority in the field. It contains 50 slides culled from tens of thousands of images on glass crystal nucleation, growth, and crystallization. The images represent glass crystallization mechanisms, including internal, surface, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and eutectic, crystal nucleation and growth.
The first book to extensively cover nanoparticles, this addresses some of the key issues in nanocomposites. * Polymer nanocomposites (polymers reinforced with nanoparticles), are of great interest due to their remarkable mechanical, thermal, chemical properties as well as optical, electronic, and magnetic applications * Potential applications include automobile body parts, high-barrier packaging materials, flame-retardants, scratch-resistant composites, and biodegradable nanocomposites * Combines basic theory as well as advanced and in-depth knowledge of these properties * Broad audience includes researchers in Materials Science, Physics, Polymer Chemistry, and Engineering, and those in industry
The latest updated edition of the market-leading guide to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the food and drink industry This all-new, 7th edition of Food and Drink - Good Manufacturing Practice: A Guide to its Responsible Management features a wealth of new information reflecting changes in the industry and advances in science that have occurred since the publication of the last edition back in 2013. They include topics such as: Food Safety Culture, Food Crime and Food Integrity Management Systems, Food Crime Risk Assessment including vulnerability risk assessment and Threat Analysis Critical Control Point (TACCP), Security and Countermeasures, Food Toxins, Allergens and Risk Assessment, Provenance and authenticity, Electronic and digital traceability technologies, Worker Welfare Standards; Smart Packaging, Food Donation Controls and Animal Food Supply, Safety Culture; Provenance and integrity testing and Sustainability Issues. In addition to the new topics mentioned above, Food and Drink - Good Manufacturing Practice, 7th Edition offers comprehensive coverage of information in chapters on Quality Management System; Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP); Premises and Equipment; Cleaning and Sanitation; Product Control, Testing and Inspection; Heat Preserved Foods; Frozen Foods; Foods for Catering and Vending Operations; and much more. Comprises both general guidance and food sector-specific requirements for good manufacturing practice Incorporates all the most recent developments and changes in UK and EU law Provides a readable and accessible reference for busy managers in the food industry Food and Drink - Good Manufacturing Practice: A Guide to its Responsible Management, 7th Edition is a valuable reference for anyone in a managerial or technical capacity concerned with the manufacture, storage, and distribution of food and drink. The book is also a "must -read" for the recommended reading lists for food science, food technology and food policy undergraduate and postgraduate studies. IFST - the Institute of Food Science and Technology is the leading qualifying body for food professionals in Europe and the only professional qualifying body in the UK concerned with all aspects of food science and technology.
Extraction processes are essential steps in numerous industrial applications from perfume over pharmaceutical to fine chemical industry. Nowadays, there are three key aspects in industrial extraction processes: economy and quality, as well as environmental considerations. This book presents a complete picture of current knowledge on green extraction in terms of innovative processes, original methods, alternative solvents and safe products, and provides the necessary theoretical background as well as industrial application examples and environmental impacts. Each chapter is written by experts in the field and the strong focus on green chemistry throughout the book makes this book a unique reference source. This book is intended to be a first step towards a future cooperation in a new extraction of natural products, built to improve both fundamental and green parameters of the techniques and to increase the amount of extracts obtained from renewable resources with a minimum consumption of energy and solvents, and the maximum safety for operators and the environment.
Block copolymers constitute a fascinating group of polymeric materials belonging to the "soft matter" family. These materials are formed by blocks of polymeric chains from different monomers. In most cases, these blocks are thermodynamically incompatible, but the covalent bonds between them impose specific arrangements, generating particular morphologies both in bulk and in solution. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the phase morphology, material applications and future challenges of block copolymers. Topics discussed include the different experimental skills developed to synthesise model block copolymers; the macromolecular design of stereo block polylactides showing high performance; ion-containing block copolymers and their applications; self-assembled block copolymers for the preparation of advanced materials; the electrical properties of polythylene-b-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymers; and triblock copolymers as tougheners for PMMA matrices.
This second edition of a global bestseller has been completely redesigned and extensively rewritten to take into account the new Quality by Design (QbD) and lifecycle concepts in pharmaceutical manufacturing. As in the first edition, the fundamental requirements for analytical method validation are covered, but the second edition describes how these are applied systematically throughout the entire analytical lifecycle. QbD principles require adoption of a systematic approach to development and validation that begin with predefined objectives. For analytical methods these predefined objectives are established as an Analytical Target Profile (ATP). The book chapters are aligned with recently introduced standards and guidelines for manufacturing processes validation and follow the three stages of the analytical lifecycle: Method Design, Method Performance Qualification, and Continued Method Performance Verification. Case studies and examples from the pharmaceutical industry illustrate the concepts and guidelines presented, and the standards and regulations from the US (FDA), European (EMA) and global (ICH) regulatory authorities are considered throughout. The undisputed gold standard in the field.
The scope of opportunities in chemical and biomolecular engineering has grown tremendously in recent years. Careers in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering conveys the breadth and depth of today's chemical and biomolecular engineering practice, and describes the intellectually enriching, socially conscious and financially lucrative opportunities available for such graduates in an ever-widening array of industries and applications. This book aims to help students interested in studying chemical engineering and biomolecular engineering to understand the many potential career pathways that are available in these dynamic fields - and is an indispensable resource for the parents, teachers, advisors and guidance counselors who support them, In addition to 10 chapters that discuss the roles such graduates play in many diverse industries, this book also features 25 Profile articles that share in-depth, first-person insight from industry-leading chemical and biomolecular engineers. These technical professionals discuss their work and educational experiences (in terms of both triumphs and challenges), and share wisdom and recommendations for students pursuing these two dynamic engineering disciplines.
Bringing a new drug to market is a costly time-consuming process. Increased regional and international regulation over the last twenty years, while necessary, has only served to amplify these costs. In response to this escalation, developmental strategies have shifted towards a more global approach. In order to create the most cost-effective and safe processes, it is critical for those bringing drugs to market to understand both the globally accepted regulations and the local variations. "Nonclinical Safety Assessment: A Guide to International Pharmaceutical Regulations "provides a practical description of nonclinical drug development regulations and requirements in the major market regions.
It includes: ICH - the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human UseNational regulations, including US FDA, Canada, Mercosur and Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan, India and AustraliaRepeated dose toxicity studiesCarcinogenicity; Genotoxicity; Developmental and reproductive toxicology; ImmunotoxicologyBiotechnology-derived pharmaceuticalsVaccine developmentPhototoxicity and photocarcinogenicityDegradants, impurities, excipients and metabolites
Primarily intended for those professionals actively involved in the nonclinical and clinical development of a pharmaceutical product, including toxicologists, pharmacologists, clinicians and project managers, this book provides a roadmap for successful new drug approval and marketing.""
Skin physiology assessment is moving from a descriptive approach to a deeper understanding of biophysical and biochemical processes in the stratum corneum, such as epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. New, non-invasive approaches offer reliable and reproducible methods for product testing in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, as well as in basic research. While standard instruments focus on functional aspects, innovative devices offer a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms. This book discusses the assessment of skin physiology and of skin functions in clinical studies using non-invasive biophysical instruments, offering readers a comprehensive guide to planning, performing and evaluating the results of scientific studies in skin measurement and the legal framework for these studies. Written by leading experts in the field, it focuses on practical aspects of non-invasive measurements. After introducing the legal aspects of the current framework for clinical cosmetic studies and basic research in cosmetology, it explores the technical practicalities of organizing a testing lab and the pre-requirements for planning a study. The third and main section addresses specific topics in cosmetic testing e.g. skin hydration, and also includes chapters on sensory aspects and in vivo skin structure vizualization. This new, updated edition of Practical Aspects of Cosmetic Testing is a valuable tool for researchers, students, and medical staff wanting to gain insights into how best to assess skin functions in controlled studies using non-invasive biophysical instruments.
This book presents a number of studies on the molecular dynamics of cement-based materials. It introduces a practical molecular model of cement-hydrate, delineates the relationship between molecular structure and nanoscale properties, reveals the transport mechanism of cement-hydrate, and provides useful methods for material design. Based on the molecular model presented here, the book subsequently sheds light on nanotechnology applications in the design of construction and building materials. As such, it offers a valuable asset for researchers, scientists, and engineers in the field of construction and building materials.
An important resource that puts the focus on the chemical engineering aspects of biomedical engineering In the past 50 years remarkable achievements have been advanced in the fields of biomedical and chemical engineering. With contributions from leading chemical engineers, Biomedical Engineering Challenges reviews the recent research and discovery that sits at the interface of engineering and biology. The authors explore the principles and practices that are applied to the ever-expanding array of such new areas as gene-therapy delivery, biosensor design, and the development of improved therapeutic compounds, imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles. Filled with illustrative case studies, this important resource examines such important work as methods of growing human cells and tissues outside the body in order to repair or replace damaged tissues. In addition, the text covers a range of topics including the challenges faced with developing artificial lungs, kidneys, and livers; advances in 3D cell culture systems; and chemical reaction methodologies for biomedical imagining analysis. This vital resource: Covers interdisciplinary research at the interface between chemical engineering, biology, and chemistry Provides a series of valuable case studies describing current themes in biomedical engineering Explores chemical engineering principles such as mass transfer, bioreactor technologies as applied to problems such as cell culture, tissue engineering, and biomedical imaging Written from the point of view of chemical engineers, this authoritative guide offers a broad-ranging but concise overview of research at the interface of chemical engineering and biology.
A comprehensive guide to numerical methods for simulating physical-chemical systems This book offers a systematic, highly accessible presentation of numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of physical-chemical systems. Unlike most books on the subject, it focuses on methodology rather than specific applications. Written for students and professionals across an array of scientific and engineering disciplines and with varying levels of experience with applied mathematics, it provides comprehensive descriptions of numerical methods without requiring an advanced mathematical background. Based on its author's more than forty years of experience teaching numerical methods to engineering students, Numerical Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations presents the fundamentals of all of the commonly used numerical methods for solving differential equations at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students in science and engineering. Throughout, elementary examples show how numerical methods are used to solve generic versions of equations that arise in many scientific and engineering disciplines. In writing it, the author took pains to ensure that no assumptions were made about the background discipline of the reader. Covers the spectrum of numerical methods that are used to simulate the behavior of physical-chemical systems that occur in science and engineering Written by a professor of engineering with more than forty years of experience teaching numerical methods to engineers Requires only elementary knowledge of differential equations and matrix algebra to master the material Designed to teach students to understand, appreciate and apply the basic mathematics and equations on which Mathcad and similar commercial software packages are based Comprehensive yet accessible to readers with limited mathematical knowledge, Numerical Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations is an excellent text for advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students in the sciences and engineering. It is also a valuable working reference for professionals in engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science, and applied mathematics.
Polymeric materials are used for a legion of applications in a wide
array of technological areas, and their proper surface/interface
characteristics are of cardinal importance for their applications.
Therefore, the need to characterize polymer surfaces/interfaces and
their suitable modification to impart desired characteristics is
This volume argues for the importance of essential nutrients in our diet. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research on the relationship of Omega-3 fatty acids and the importance of antioxidants to human health. Expert authors discuss the importance of a diet rich in Omega-3 Fatty acids for successful human growth and development and for the prevention of disease. Chapters highlight their contribution to the prevention and amelioration of a wide range of conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, obesity, mental health and bone health. An indispensable text designed for nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health related professionals, Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Keys to Nutritional Health presents a comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge about the nutritional effects of Omega-3 fatty acids and their delivery in foods.
This is the first resource to provide researchers in academia and
industry with an urgently needed update on drug intervention
against trypanosomatides. As such, it
Fifteen personalities. Fifteen regions. Fifteen wine styles. All sharing the same passion, drive and concern for quality. Vineyard tells the story of 15 Belgian winemakers who operate in 15 different European countries. Their journeys lead the reader to the most diverse wine domains: from the flanks of the Etna in Sicily to the Douro riversides in Portugal, and the fascinating landscape of the Priorat in Spain. This book details the wine-making process, while giving the reader an intimate feel for the localities where these wines are produced.
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