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A fully updated edition of a popular textbook covering the four disciplines of chemical technology?featuring new developments in the field Clear and thorough throughout, this textbook covers the major sub-disciplines of modern chemical technology?chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering, and general chemical technology?alongside raw materials, energy sources and detailed descriptions of 24 important industrial processes and products. It brings information on energy and raw material consumption and production data of chemicals up to date and offers not just improved and extended chapters, but completely new ones as well. This new edition of Chemical Technology: From Principles to Products features a new chapter illustrating the global economic map and its development from the 15th century until today, and another on energy consumption in human history. Chemical key technologies for a future sustainable energy system such as power-to-X and hydrogen storage are now also examined. Chapters on inorganic products, material reserves, and water consumption and resources have been extended, while another presents environmental aspects of plastic pollution and handling of plastic waste. The book also adds four important processes to its pages: production of titanium dioxide, silicon, production and chemical recycling of polytetrafluoroethylene, and fermentative synthesis of amino acids. -Provides comprehensive coverage of chemical technology?from the fundamentals to 24 of the most important processes -Intertwines the four disciplines of chemical technology: chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering and general chemical technology -Fully updated with new content on: power-to-X and hydrogen storage; inorganic products, including metals, glass, and ceramics; water consumption and pollution; and additional industrial processes -Written by authors with extensive experience in teaching the topic and helping students understand the complex concepts Chemical Technology: From Principles to Products, Second Edition is an ideal textbook for advanced students of chemical technology and will appeal to anyone in chemical engineering.
Written by the pioneers of Viagra, the first blockbuster PDE
At the interface of chemical industry operations, equipment
manufacturer input, and the scientific literature, Industrial
Crystallization of Melts explores and explains melt crystallization
and purification in the industrial arena. This comprehensive
account details the orderly conversion of melts into solid, salable
end materials and procedures for purification by remelting;
summarizes key theoretical concepts relating to crystalline matter
and instationary heat transfer; and surveys the equipment available
for specific processes. It also offers over 100 tested equations,
as well as clear-cut methods for handling organic melts that call
for special crystallization provisions.
This book provides unique insights into the issues that drive modified dosing regimens for antibiotics in the critically ill. Leading international authors provide their commentary alongside a summary of existing evidence on how to effectively dose antibiotics. Severe infection frequently necessitates admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Equally, nosocomial sepsis often complicates the clinical course in ICU. Early, appropriate application of antibiotic therapy remains a cornerstone of effective management. However, this is challenging in the critical care environment, given the significant changes in patient physiology and organ function frequently encountered. Being cognisant of these factors, prescribers need to consider modified dosing regimens, not only to ensure adequate drug exposure, and therefore the greatest chance of clinical cure, but also to avoid encouraging drug resistance.
Combining the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice delivers a detailed discussion of the theory, design, processing, and application of degradable foam extraction. In one comprehensive volume, the editors present the collective expertise of leading academic, research, and industry specialists while laying the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. To keep pace with significant improvements in foam extrusion technology, this Second Edition: Includes new chapters on the latest developments in processing/thermal management, rheology/melt strength, and biodegradable and sustainable foams Features extensive updates to chapters on extrusion equipment, blowing agents, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam, and microcellular innovation Contains new coverage of cutting-edge foaming mechanisms and technology, as well as new case studies, examples, and figures Capturing the interesting evolution of the field, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice, Second Edition provides scientists, engineers, and product development professionals with a modern, holistic view of foam extrusion to enhance research and development and aid in the selection of the optimal screw, die design, and foaming system.
Providing a clear description of the theory of polydisperse multiphase flows, with emphasis on the mesoscale modelling approach and its relationship with microscale and macroscale models, this all-inclusive introduction is ideal whether you are working in industry or academia. Theory is linked to practice through discussions of key real-world cases (particle/droplet/bubble coalescence, break-up, nucleation, advection and diffusion and physical- and phase-space), providing valuable experience in simulating systems that can be applied to your own applications. Practical cases of QMOM, DQMOM, CQMOM, EQMOM and ECQMOM are also discussed and compared, as are realizable finite-volume methods. This provides the tools you need to use quadrature-based moment methods, choose from the many available options, and design high-order numerical methods that guarantee realizable moment sets. In addition to the numerous practical examples, MATLAB (R) scripts for several algorithms are also provided, so you can apply the methods described to practical problems straight away.
This book provides important insights into the combustion behavior of novel energy crops and agricultural fuels. It describes a new experimental approach to combustion evaluation, involving fundamental, bench-scale and commercial-scale studies. The studies presented were conducted on two representative biomass energy crops: a woody biomass poplar (Populus sp. or poplar) and an herbaceous biomass brassica (Brassica carinata or brassica). Moreover, agricultural residues of Manihot esculenta or cassava were also analyzed. The main accomplishments of this work are threefold. Firstly, it offers an extensive characterization of the above-mentioned fuels, their ash chemistry and their emissions of both solid particles and gaseous compounds that form at typical grate combustion conditions. Secondly, it presents an in-depth analysis of ash fractionation processes for major ash species. Thirdly, it describes the role of some critical and volatile key elements (K, Cl, S and P) in grate-fired combustion systems and elucidates the main differences in the ash chemistry during combustion of Si-rich and P-rich fuels. All in all, this work provides novel insights on the basic and fundamental mechanisms of biomass grate combustion with a special focus on ash transformation and highlights important issues and recommendations that need to be considered for an appropriate conversion of ash-rich fuels and for the development of future technology in the context of both small- and medium-scale biomass-based heat and power production.
An unprecedented guide to successfully start or grow a microbrewery or craft brewery in a much more competitive world. Opening a microbrewery starts with, of course, making great beer. But that is just the beginning. Today's sophisticated patrons are offered an ever-increasing array of options. It's so much more than beer nowadays. Yes, great beer is essential, but to attract and hold on to a loyal customer base, you must create a sense of place. Do your research. Understand financing and cash flow. Know how to measure your success. A successful, well-run microbrewery knows how to hire the right employees--employees that will spread word of your business to friends, family, even total strangers, both on and off the clock. Marketing, branding, customer experience; they all matter. There are so many factors that directly and indirectly contribute to success, it may at times be overwhelming. The Microbrewery Handbook offers an extraordinary look at all of the facets of success in the industry. No matter if you are thinking about starting a new venture or are already operating your own microbrewery, this valuable book offers real-world advice and proven strategies to help you thrive in the competitive micro and craft brewing industry. Focused on practical guidance, author D.C. Reeves distills his experience founding Perfect Plain Brewing Company in Pensacola, Florida into an engaging, up-to-date resource for microbrewers everywhere. Clearly showing readers what works in the industry and, just as importantly, what doesn't work, The Microbrewery Handbook: Helps you create unique, memorable experiences for your customers, your employees, and your city Includes coverage of the financial aspects of building and growing your business, such as banking, investment, and debt Shows you how to transform your business into a community anchor Offers suggestions on building an entire culture around your brand that promotes positivity and attracts the right kind of attention Shares personal stories and advice from a successful microbrew entrepreneur Includes interviews and insight with industry experts as well as owners of some of the nation's elite craft breweries including Sam Calagione of Dogfish Head, Jeffrey Stuffings of Jester King, and Doug Resier of Burial Brewing The Microbrewery Handbook: Craft, Brew, and Build Your Own Microbrewery Success is an indispensable, first-of-its-kind book for anyone in the micro and craft brewing industry.
Since the publication of the first edition of Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use in 1988, it has become the leading technical book for the industry. From the beginning it was recognised that the complexity of the chocolate industry means that no single person can be an expert in every aspect of it. For example, the academic view of a process such as crystallisation can be very different from that of a tempering machine operator, so some topics have more than one chapter to take this into account. It is also known that the biggest selling chocolate, in say the USA, tastes very different from that in the UK, so the authors in the book were chosen from a wide variety of countries making the book truly international. Each new edition is a mixture of updates, rewrites and new topics. In this book the new subjects include artisan or craft scale production, compound chocolates and sensory. This book is an essential purchase for all those involved in the manufacture, use and sale of chocolate containing products, especially for confectionery and chocolate scientists, engineers and technologists working both in industry and academia. The new edition also boasts two new co-editors, Mark Fowler and Greg Ziegler, both of whom have contributed chapters to previous editions of the book. Mark Fowler has had a long career at Nestle UK, working in Cocoa and Chocolate research and development he is retiring in 2013. Greg Ziegler is a professor in the food science department at Penn State University in the USA.
Covering regulatory requirements stipulated by the FDA, this book delineates the organization, planning, verification, and documentation activities and procedural controls required for compliance with worldwide computer systems validation regulations. The author introduces supporting technologies such as encryption and digital signatures and places regulatory compliance within the context of quality assurance. He demonstrates the importance of integrating validation activities into the system lifecycle using a structured top-down approach. He covers practical applications of quality assurance and engineering techniques as they relate to the development of systems fit to meet user and regulatory requirements.
This book, divided in ten chapters, deals with topics like significance of food hygiene, quality and safety in hospitality industry, food microbiology, various microorganisms & their growth, causes and prevention of foodborne diseases. It explains the concept of purchase, receiving and storage of food ingredients in food service establishments, hygienic handling of food in food service operations. It also includes topics like personal hygiene, safety issues in catering establishments like fire & accident prevention/control and first-aid. It highlights how locations for catering outlet are selected and planned from sanitation point of view. It further deals with topics like cleaning & disinfection of premises, dishwashing, cleaning agents, pest control, importance of water, waste and sewage disposal. Various food laws and regulations like international regulations pertaining to food and new food laws of India (Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006), Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and other national & international food regulations are given in detail. It discusses food adulteration and its method of detection & control, and focuses on concepts of labeling & traceability and types & trends in packaging. It deals with Quality Assurance, Codex Alimentarius, GHP, GMP TQM, ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 22000 and its importance, quality and international food standards. The concept of HACCP and its applications in food establishments are explained in detail. It highlights genetically modified food, its safety concerns and advantages & disadvantages, role of biotechnology & food security, risk assessment and risk management of food. For further reference readers may refer to HACCP: Applications and its Challenges another book by the same author and publisher. Salient Features: Explores key elements of food safety & quality with fundamental theoretical concepts & techniques for food operation in hospitality sector. Deals with latest food safety techniques, food laws, regulations, practices and standards followed worldwide. Emerging international issue of concern in food sector.
Lists the necessary steps for meeting compliance requirements during the drug development process. Presents comprehensive approaches for validating analytical methods for pharmaceutical applications. Features key discussions on pre-approval inspections.
Written by an excellent, highly experienced and motivated team of lecturers, this textbook is based on one of the most successful courses in catalysis and as such is tried-and-tested by generations of graduate and PhD students. It covers all essential aspects of this important topic, including homogeneous, heterogeneous and biocatalysis, but also kinetics, reactor design and engineering. The perfect source of information for graduate and PhD students in chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as for scientists wanting to refresh their knowledge.
The second edition of the book begins with the description of the diversity of wine-related microorganisms, followed by an outline of their primary and energy metabolism. Subsequently, important aspects of the secondary metabolism are dealt with, since these activities have an impact on wine quality and off-flavour formation. Then chapters about stimulating and inhibitory growth factors follow. This knowledge is helpful for the growth management of different microbial species. The next chapters focus on the application of the consolidated findings of molecular biology and regulation the functioning of regulatory cellular networks, leading to a better understanding of the phenotypic behaviour of the microbes in general and especially of the starter cultures as well as of stimulatory and inhibitory cell-cell interactions during wine making. In the last part of the book, a compilation of modern methods complete the understanding of microbial processes during the conversion of must to wine.This broad range of topics about the biology of the microbes involved in the vinification process could be provided in one book only because of the input of many experts from different wine-growing countries.
This book illustrates, in a comprehensive manner, the most current areas of importance to Safety Pharmacology, a burgeoning unique pharmacological discipline with important ties to academia, industry and regulatory authorities. It provides readers with a definitive collection of topics containing essential information on the latest industry guidelines and overviews current and breakthrough topics in both functional and molecular pharmacology. An additional novelty of the book is that it constitutes academic, pharmaceutical and biotechnology perspectives for Safety Pharmacology issues. Each chapter is written by an expert in the area and includes not only a fundamental background regarding the topic but also detailed descriptions of currently accepted, validated models and methods as well as innovative methodologies used in drug discovery.
Chemical Engineering III includes the proceedings of the 3rd SREE Conference on Chemical Engineering (CCE 2013, Hong Kong, 28-29 December 2013) and the 2nd SREE Workshop on Energy, Environment and Engineering (WEEE 2013, which was a part of CCE 2013). The contributions discuss current practical challenges and solutions in Chemical Engineering, and cover a wide range of topics: - Chemical materials - Chemical processes - Chemical equipment - Biochemical engineering - Chemical engineering and environment - Oil and gas engineering - Energy engineering - New energy - Environmental engineering Chemical Engineering III will be invaluable to engineers and academics involved or interested in these areas.
This book systematically covers the sensory, physical, chemical nutrition, and processing characteristics of different peanut varieties, while also providing an in-depth review of research advances in peanut processing quality. The book goes on to examine the relationship between raw materials and the qualities of peanut protein, peanut oil and other main peanut processing products. As such, it provides a valuable reference guide for research into the raw materials, change mechanisms and control technologies used in peanut processing, laying the groundwork for the development of new disciplines in "grain and oil processing quality". It will be useful for graduate students, researchers, and management groups from multidisciplinary audiences, covering both food science & technology and public health.
Selenium is arguably the naturally occurring trace element of greatest concern worldwide. In excessive amounts it can lead to toxicosis and teratogenesis in animals, while the impact of selenium deficiency can be even more significant. Contributors from 22 countries explored the connections and inter-relationships between selenium in the environment, agriculture, human and animal health, and molecular and biochemistry processes to complete this book containing 90 peer-reviewed extended abstracts. The text represents glimpses of the presentations that were delivered at the 3rd International Conference on Selenium in the Environment and Human Health in 2013 in Hefei, China. We are indebted to the international authors representing a multitude of disciplines from academic, industry, and governments for sharing their extraordinary new knowledge on selenium research.
Steroid dimers are an important group of compounds produced by various marine organisms, and also synthesized in the laboratories. This group of compounds possesses various pharmacological and biological properties, and can also be used to create "molecular umbrellas" for drug delivery.
"Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery" provides an up-to-date overview on the chemistry and applications of steroid dimers of natural and synthetic origins. The book includes easy-to-follow synthetic protocols for various classes of important dimeric steroids, source details, valuable spectroscopic data and depiction of unique structural features of natural steroidal dimers, and the Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) of some pharmacologically active dimeric steroids. Topics covered include: introduction to steroid dimers synthesis and chemistry of noncyclic and cyclic steroid dimersnaturally occurring steroid dimers - cephalostatins, ritterazines and crellastatinsbiological and pharmacological functions of steroid dimers and their application in drug design and discoverysteroid dimers as "molecular umbrellas" for drug delivery"Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery" is an essential guide to this important class of natural and synthetic compounds for researchers and students of natural products chemistry and biochemistry, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry, and drug design, discovery and delivery.
Microscopy plays an integral role in the research and development of new medicines. Pharmaceutical Microscopy describes a wide variety of techniques together with numerous practical applications of importance in drug development. The first section presents general methods and applications with an emphasis on the physical science aspects. Techniques covered include optical crystallography, thermal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, microspectroscopy (infrared and Raman), and particle size and shape by image analysis. The second section presents applications of these techniques to specific topics of pharmaceutical interest, including studies of polymorphism, particle size and shape analysis, and contaminant identification. Pharmaceutical Microscopy is designed for those scientists who must use these techniques to solve pharmaceutical problems but do not need to become expert microscopists. Consequently, each section has exercises designed to teach the reader how to use and apply the techniques in the book. Although the focus is on pharmaceutical development, workers in other fields such as food science and organic chemistry will also benefit from the discussion of techniques and the exercises. Provides comprehensive coverage of key microscopy techniques used in pharmaceutical development Helps the reader to solve specific problems in pharmaceutical quality assurance Oriented and designed for pharmaceutical scientists who need to use microscopy but are not expert microscopists Includes a large number of practical exercises to give the reader hands-on experience with the techniques Written by an author with 21 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry
This book details the relationships between microstructure, interface roughness, and properties of thermal barrier coatings. The author proposes a method for the reduction of the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer in order to increase the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings. He includes models for the optimization of ceramic layer microstructure and interface roughness.
The pharmaceutical applications of powder technology have long been recognized. Yet while many books focus on aspects of powder formation and behavior, there has been no text that explores the power of particulate science in the design, manufacture, and control of quality medicines. Until now. A Guide to Pharmaceutical Particulate Science discusses key principles of particulate science and their practical applications. The authors cover particulate material, its form and production, sampling from bodies of powder, particle size descriptors and statistics, behavior of particles, instrumental analysis, particle size measurement and synergy of adopted techniques, physical behavior of a powder, and in vitro and in vivo performance criteria. They draw the components of particulate science into a single concise description of their current and potential uses in product development. Exploring the growth in knowledge of particle properties and the variety of technological advances in particle manufacture, A Guide to Pharmaceutical Particulate Science gives readers the tools they need to grasp the science and its use in the industry.
This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.
In the process industry, shutdown and turnaround costs are responsible for an excessive amount of maintenance expenses. Process Plants: Shutdown and Turnaround Management explores various types of shutdowns, presents recommendations for better management, and offers feasible solutions to help reduce overheads. Because turnaround management is the largest maintenance activity, plant turnaround is the focal point of this text. The book details a plan to lengthen the interval between turnarounds, and curtail costs in process production management by at least 30 percent.
This practical guidebook provides a thorough study of shutdown management, discusses different types of shutdown and managing events (emergency, unplanned, planned, and turnaround), and covers all aspects of plant turnaround management including startup, shutdown, and maintenance. It describes the five phases of shutdown management initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing. It contains specific principles and precautions for successful shutdown planning, and highlights many aspects including turnaround philosophy, planning and scheduling, estimation, contractor management, execution, safety management, managing human resources, and post shut down review.
Process Plants: Shutdown and Turnaround Management also includes topical information that readers can successfully apply to future shutdown projects. It is suitable for industry professionals and graduate students."
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations. Readers will arrive at a comprehensive understanding of various mercury emission control methods that are suitable for industrial applications. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of energy science and technology, environmental science and technology and chemical engineering.
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