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Petroleum refining is one of the most important yet challenging industries, and continues to be a major contributor in the production of transportation fuels and chemicals. Current economic, regulatory and environmental concerns place significant pressure on refiners to upgrade and optimize the refining process. At the same time, new product demands are urging refiners to explore alternative processing units and feedstocks.
This textbook represents a pioneering and comprehensive introduction to this complex subject, using many of the tools and techniques currently employed in modern refinery process simulation.
Adopting a systematic and practical approach, the authors include the theory, case studies and hands-on workshops, explaining how to work with real data. As a result, senior-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as industrial engineers learn how to develop and use the latest computer models for the predictive modeling and optimization of integrated refinery processes.
Additional material is available online providing relevant spreadsheets and simulation files for all the models and examples presented in the book.
Polymer composites made functional and customizable: new materials for real-life applications
The academic and industrial interest in semiconducting polymer composites is rising, owing to the unique combination of easy and low-cost processability and versatility of these materials
This comprehensive book provides broad coverage addressing the principles of semiconducting polymer blends such as morphology, energetics and processing as well as the wide range of applications in optics, electronics and optoelectronics.
Fostering interdisciplinary research, the book combines the fields of polymer composites and functional polymers, allowing for cross-fertilization between these two scientific communities.
This book gives a comprehensive overview about medicinal inorganic chemistry. Topics like targeting strategies, mechanism of action, Pt-based antitumor drugs, radiopharmaceuticals are covered in detail and offer the reader an in-depth overview about this important topic.
Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their volatilities (the point at which liquids become gases). Written by one of the inventors of the osmotic distillation technique, Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Distillation is the only available book that addresses the principles and practical applications of membrane distillation and osmotic distillation, two closely related, novel processes that offer several advantages over conventional concentration processes. Because of the widespread impact and application of the technology in industries such as food, environment, and nuclear cleanup/containment, the book addresses plant setup, process economics, hybrid processes, and potential applications so that the technique can be used in combination with existing distillation setups. Tables, equations, and data supplied by manufacturers are included, thereby making it a complete package for researchers and plant operators.
This comprehensive and up-to-date handbook on this highly topical field, covering everything from new process concepts to commercial applications. Describing novel developments as well as established methods, the authors start with the evaluation of different oxygen carriers and subsequently illuminate various technological concepts for the energy conversion process. They then go on to discuss the potential for commercial applications in gaseous, coal, and fuel combustion processes in industry. The result is an invaluable source for every scientist in the field, from inorganic chemists in academia to chemical engineers in industry.
Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.
"Global Tea Breeding: Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives" provides a global review on biodiversity and biotechnology issues in tea breeding and selection. The contributions are written by experts from China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Indonesia, Japan, Bangladesh, Korea, Nigeria, and etc., which countries amount to 90% of the world tea production. This book focuses on the germplasm, breeding and selection of tea cultivars for the production of black, green and Oolong teas from the tea plant, "Camellia sinensis "(L.) O. Kuntze. It can benefit the tea breeders in the global tea industry, as well as the breeders of other woody cash crops like coffee and other sub-tropical fruit trees.
Liang Chen is a Professor and Associate Director at National Center for Tea Improvement, Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (TRICAAS), Hangzhou, China.
Zeno Apostolides is a Professor at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Zong-Mao Chen is the Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a Professor at the Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.
Chemical engineers face the challenge of learning the difficult concept and application of entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. By following a visual approach and offering qualitative discussions of the role of molecular interactions, Koretsky helps them understand and visualize thermodynamics. Highlighted examples show how the material is applied in the real world. Expanded coverage includes biological content and examples, the Equation of State approach for both liquid and vapor phases in VLE, and the practical side of the 2nd Law. Engineers will then be able to use this resource as the basis for more advanced concepts.
The past decade has seen the reappearance of natural products as a valuable source of potent therapeutics. Here, experts on bioactive natural products cover the full spectrum of clinically relevant enzymes that are known to be targeted by natural products. Key enzymes include acetylcholine esterase, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, cyclooxygenase, dihydrofolate reductase, phospholipase A2, respiratory complexes, and many more. By connecting the diversity of medicinal natural product sources with their potential clinical applications, this volume serves as a companion for the medicinal chemist looking for innovative small molecule compounds as well as for pharmacologist interested in the clinical effects and mode of action of herbal and traditional medicines.
This self-contained handbook and ready reference examines aerosol
science and technology in depth, providing a detailed insight into
this progressive field. As such, it covers fundamental concepts,
experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications, ranging
from aerosol filtration to biological aerosols, and from the
synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.
The production of textile materials comprises a very large and complex global industry that utilises a diverse range of fibre types and creates a variety of textile products. As the great majority of such products are coloured, predominantly using aqueous dyeing processes, the coloration of textiles is a large-scale global business in which complex procedures are used to apply different types of dye to the various types of textile material. The development of such dyeing processes is the result of substantial research activity, undertaken over many decades, into the physico-chemical aspects of dye adsorption and the establishment of dyeing theory , which seeks to describe the mechanism by which dyes interact with textile fibres. Physico-Chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration provides a comprehensive treatment of the physical chemistry involved in the dyeing of the major types of natural, man-made and synthetic fibres with the principal types of dye. The book covers: * fundamental aspects of the physical and chemical structure of both fibres and dyes, together with the structure and properties of water, in relation to dyeing; * dyeing as an area of study as well as the terminology employed in dyeing technology and science; * contemporary views of intermolecular forces and the nature of the interactions that can occur between dyes and fibres at a molecular level; * fundamental principles involved in dyeing theory, as represented by the thermodynamics and kinetics of dye sorption; * detailed accounts of the mechanism of dyeing that applies to cotton (and other cellulosic fibres), polyester, polyamide, wool, polyacrylonitrile and silk fibres; * non-aqueous dyeing, as represented by the use of air, organic solvents and supercritical CO2 fluid as alternatives to water as application medium. The up-to-date text is supported by a large number of tables, figures and illustrations as well as footnotes and widespread use of references to published work. The book is essential reading for students, teachers, researchers and professionals involved in textile coloration.
The book describes the science and technology of formulation and manufacturing of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate as the main ingredient. Based on the author's industry experience of more than thirty years, it provides an unparalleled treatment of one of the commercially most important classes of explosives and therefore stimulates further research and development efforts in the field of explosives for civil applications.
`Gloucestershire is a poor county for real ale': that was the sad assessment of the county's brewing heritage in the 1976 Good Beer Guide according to the Campaign For Real Ale. Just two breweries were in operation then, supplying only four real ales. The ubiquitous Whitbread PA was easy to find, but it took a determined effort to seek out the delights of XXX, BB and SBA from the highly regarded and picturesque Donnington Brewery near Stow on the Wold. It was all a far cry from the glory days of brewing in Gloucestershire, when most towns could boast their own local brewery, producing beers of character. It's tempting to be overly sentimental about the closure of much-loved breweries such as Wintle's Forest Brewery of Mitcheldean, Tayler's Cotswold Brewery of Northleach and so on ... but there were economic and social factors that made such rationalisation inevitable. With the closure of the Whitbread Flowers Brewery in Cheltenham in 1997, it was feared that the rich history of brewing in Gloucestershire was under threat. However, nearly twenty years later, Gloucestershire is awash with breweries producing truly wonderful and distinctive beers. Indeed, beer drinkers have never had it better. Cheers!
Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers' Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulation and leak detection. All of the authors work or did work at a selection of the most important German companies involved in vacuum technology, and their expertise is disseminated here for engineers working in vacuum technology, chemical process design, plant operation, and mechanical engineering.
A dram of fine scotch can transport us to Scotland Highlands or Lowlands, coast or island from anywhere in the world. This fully illustrated book looks at the ingredients and processes, the distilleries, the famous whiskies, and the wealth of colourful tales that make scotch whisky what it is. Inside front: Scotch whisky: words redolent of Highland vistas and wind-blown coasts, carefully guarded family traditions and the living heritage of craft-based distilling. Yet despite these very specific associations it is also the world's most popular spirit, with new devotees flocking constantly from across the globe. Scotch Whisky looks at the history of the industry and drink - from moonlighters and Excisemen through prohibition up to recent competition from trendier clear spirits - and at what makes each malt whisky so unique: the various distilleries, the raw materials, the distillation and maturation, the sometimes minute variations that can make tremendous differences in flavor and aroma. Looking as well at grain whisky and blends, it is the only guide you will need to scotch and the scotch industry, whether touring distilleries or relaxing at home with a dram.
This book provides readers with a one-stop entry into the chemistry of varied hybrids and applications, from a molecular synthetic standpoint
- Describes introduction and effect of organic structures on specific support components (carbon-based materials, proteins, metals, and polymers).- Chapters cover hot topics including nanodiamonds, nanocrystals, metal-organic frameworks, peptide bioconjugates, and chemoselective protein modification- Describes analytical techniques, with pros and cons, to validate synthetic strategies - Edited by internationally-recognized chemists from different backgrounds (synthetic polymer chemistry, inorganic surfaces and particles, and synthetic organic chemistry) to pull together diverse perspectives and approaches
A work on turbulent premixed combustion is timely because of increased concern about the environmental impact of combustion and the search for new combustion concepts and technologies. An improved understanding of lean fuel turbulent premixed flames must play a central role in the fundamental science of these new concepts. Lean premixed flames have the potential to offer ultra-low emission levels, but they are notoriously susceptible to combustion oscillations. Thus, sophisticated control measures are inevitably required. The editors' intent is to set out the modeling aspects in the field of turbulent premixed combustion. Good progress has been made recently on this topic. Thus, it is timely to edit a cohesive volume containing contributions from international experts on various subtopics of the lean premixed flame problem.
To the layman, adhesion is a simple matter of how well two different materials stick together, and adhesion measurements provide some indication of the force required to separate them. However, a more detailed look at adhesion shows that it is a very important feature of food throughout its manufacturing, packaging and storage. Chapters are fully devoted to the fascinating topic of adhesion in foods. Key features of the book include, but are not limited to: definition and nomenclature of adhesion; adhesion mechanisms and measurements; stickiness in various foods and its relation to technological processes; perception of stickiness; hydrocolloids as adhesive agents for foods; adhesion phenomena in coated, battered, breaded and fried foods; electrostatic adhesion in foods; multilayered adhered food products, and adhesion of substances to packaging and cookware. Adhesion in Foods: Fundamental Principles and Applications is dedicated not only to the academic community but also to the broader population of industrialists and experimentalists who will find it to be not only a source of knowledge, but also a launching pad for novel ideas and inventions. In particular, this book is expected to be of interest to personnel involved in food formulation, food scientists, food technologists, industrial chemists and engineers, and those working in product development.
Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever. This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed, followed by an outline on the propagating mode characteristics and how they affect the performances of the fiber. The second part of the book reviews conventional materials of POFs and gives an overview on fabrication methods. This is followed by a survey of characterization methods. Based on the characteristics of optical communication systems, the last chapter will concentrate on the many advantages of POF in link and network design. Written by a top expert in the field, this is an invaluable resource for semiconductor physicists, materials scientists, polymer chemists, electrical engineers, and those working in the semiconductor industry.
Adopting a unique approach, this book provides a thorough, one-stop introduction to nanoscience and self-assembly of nanomaterials composed of such materials as metals, metal oxides, metal sulphides, polymers, and biopolymers. Clearly divided into three sections covering the main aspects of nanoscience, the first part deals with the basic principles of nanoscale science. Alongside essential approaches and forces, this section also covers thermodynamics, phase transitions, and applications to biological systems. The second and third parts then go on to provide a detailed description of the synthesis of inorganic and organic nanoparticles, respectively. With its interdisciplinary content of importance to many different branches of nanoscience, this is essential reading for material scientists, physicists, biophysical chemists, chemical engineers, and biotechnologists alike.
The book series 'Polymer Nano-, Micro- and Macrocomposites'
provides complete and comprehensive information on all
Advances in biotechnology have provided scientists with an increasing number of biopharmaceuticals such as novel peptide and protein drugs as well as nucleic acid based drugs for gene therapy. However, successful delivery of these biopharmaceuticals is a major challenge because their molecular properties lead to poor physical and chemical stability in the body and limited membrane permeability. Therefore researchers are developing a range of new delivery technologies and materials to enable these new drugs to be delivered intact to their target sites.
"Delivery Technologies for Biopharmaceuticals" describes strategies to overcome the main barriers for successful delivery of therapeutic peptides, proteins, and nucleic acid-based drugs or vaccines related to the site of administration and the target site. Many of the approaches described are reported in formulations in current clinical trials as well as in marketed products. Contents include:
challenges in delivery of biopharmaceuticalsnovel formulation approaches for peptide and protein injectablesnon-viral chemical vectors and viral technology for delivery of nucleic acid based drugsimmune response, adjuvants and delivery systems for vaccinesseveral examples of delivery systems for different biopharmaceuticalsa critical assessment of delivery technologies for biopharmaceuticals
"Delivery Technologies for Biopharmaceuticals" is an essential single-volume introduction to the technologies used by researchers to ensure efficient delivery of this exciting new class of drugs. It will be of value to researchers and students working in drug delivery, formulation, biopharmaceuticals, medicinal chemistry, and new materials development.
This is an introduction to the dynamics of fluids at small scales, the physical and mathematical underpinnings of Brownian motion, and the application of these subjects to the dynamics and flow of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and polymer solutions. It brings together continuum mechanics, statistical mechanics, polymer and colloid science, and various branches of applied mathematics, in a self-contained and integrated treatment that provides a foundation for understanding complex fluids, with a strong emphasis on fluid dynamics. Students and researchers will find that this book is extensively cross-referenced to illustrate connections between different aspects of the field. Its focus on fundamental principles and theoretical approaches provides the necessary groundwork for research in the dynamics of flowing complex fluids.
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