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The science of pigments, hues, and dyes has a long and ancient history. From the 40000-years-old caves at Lascaux and the medieval cloth trade that enriched Europe to the synthetic chemistry of modern times, colour making has had a central place in our lives. This book surveys the history of dyes and pigments, the invention of new colours, and the industries that fuelled them. It explores colouring and dyeing methods through history and asks questions relating to this, such as: what were the colours of Ancient Egypt?; what did artists use to paint their magnificent frescoes?; where do indigo and ochre come from?; why is purple the colour of royalty?; what are pastels?; how many colours are their?; why do we dye our food?; who invented ink?; what are white and black made of?; and what is the symbolism of yellow? This comprehensive text offers information and insights into many colours ranging from cerise to heliotrope, and gamboge to periwinkle.
This is the first monograph to specifically focus on fundamentals
and applications of polyelectrolytes, a class of molecules that
gained substantial interest due to their unique combination of
properties. Combining both features of organic semiconductors and
This is the first book in the field to focus on these aspects,
providing extremely valuable information unavailable elsewhere for
anyone seeking the practical application of microreactor technology
in preparative chemistry.
Filling an obvious gap in the scientific literature, this
practice-oriented reference is the first to tie together the
working knowledge of large
This book introduces the concept of novel process windows, focusing on cost improvements, safety, energy and eco-efficiency throughout each step of the process. The first part presents the new reactor and process-related technologies, introducing the potential and benefit analysis. The core of the book details scenarios for unusual parameter sets and the new holistic and systemic approach to processing, while the final part analyses the implications for green and cost-efficient processing. With its practical approach, this is invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, fuels and oils industries.
A practice-oriented desktop reference for medical professionals,
toxicologists and pharmaceutical researchers, this handbook
NMR in Pharmaceutical Sciences is intended to be a comprehensive source of information for the many individuals that utilize MR in studies of relevance to the pharmaceutical sector. The book is intended to educate and inform those who develop and apply MR approaches within the wider pharmaceutical environment, emphasizing the toolbox that is available to spectroscopists and radiologists. This book is structured on the key processes in drug discovery, development and manufacture, but underpinned by an understanding of fundamental NMR principles and the unique contribution that NMR (including MRI) can provide. After an introductory chapter, which constitutes an overview, the content is organised into five sections. The first section is on the basics of NMR theory and relevant experimental methods. The rest follow a sequence based on the chronology of drug discovery and development, firstly 'Idea to Lead' then 'Lead to Drug Candidate', followed by 'Clinical Development', and finally 'Drug Manufacture'. The thirty one chapters cover a vast range of topics from analytical chemistry, including aspects involved in regulatory matters and in the prevention of fraud, to clinical imaging studies. Whilst this comprehensive volume will be essential reading for many scientists based in pharmaceutical and related industries, it should also be of considerable value to a much wider range of academic scientists whose research is related to the various aspects of pharmaceutical R for them it will supply vital understanding of pharmaceutical industrial concerns and the basis of key decision making processes. About eMagRes Handbooks eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes
Written for drug developers rather than computer scientists, this monograph adopts a systematic approach to mining scientifi c data sources, covering all key steps in rational drug discovery, from compound screening to lead compound selection and personalized medicine. Clearly divided into four sections, the first part discusses the different data sources available, both commercial and non-commercial, while the next section looks at the role and value of data mining in drug discovery. The third part compares the most common applications and strategies for polypharmacology, where data mining can substantially enhance the research effort. The final section of the book is devoted to systems biology approaches for compound testing. Throughout the book, industrial and academic drug discovery strategies are addressed, with contributors coming from both areas, enabling an informed decision on when and which data mining tools to use for one's own drug discovery project.
Polymer composites are materials in which the matrix polymer is reinforced with organic/inorganic fillers of a definite size and shape, leading to enhanced performance of the resultant composite. These materials find a wide number of applications in such diverse fields as geotextiles, building, electronics, medical, packaging, and automobiles. This first systematic reference on the topic emphasizes the characteristics and dimension of this reinforcement. The authors are leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions across the globe, and adopt a practical approach here, covering such aspects as the preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymer composites. The book begins by discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems. Interfacial characterization of the composites is discussed in detail, as is the macro- and micromechanics of the composites. Structure-property relationships in various composite systems are explained with the help of theoretical models, while processing techniques for various macro- to nanocomposite systems and the influence of processing parameters on the properties of the composite are reviewed in detail. The characterization of microstructure, elastic, viscoelastic, static and dynamic mechanical, thermal, tribological, rheological, optical, electrical and barrier properties are highlighted, as well as their myriad applications. Divided into three volumes: Vol. 1. Macro- and Microcomposites; Vol. 2. Nanocomposites; and Vol. 3. Biocomposites.
For many processes and applications in science and technology a
basic knowledge of liquids and solutions is a must. Gaining a
better understanding of the behavior and properties of pure liquids
and solutions will help to improve many processes and to advance
research in many different areas. This book provides a
comprehensive, self-contained and integrated survey of this topic
and is a must-have for many chemists, chemical engineers and
material scientists, ranging from newcomers in the field to more
experienced researchers. The author
Microfluidics is a young and rapidly expanding scientific
discipline, which deals with fluids and solutions in miniaturized
systems, the so-called lab-on-a-chip systems. It has applications
in chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and medicine.
As the lab-on-a-chip systems grow in complexity, a proper
theoretical understanding becomes increasingly important.
Why is chocolate melting on the tongue such a decadent sensation? Why do we love crunching on bacon? Why is fizz-less soda such a disappointment to drink, and why is flat beer so unappealing to the palate? Our sense of taste produces physical and emotional reactions that cannot be explained by chemical components alone. Eating triggers our imagination, draws on our powers of recall, and activates our critical judgment, creating a unique impression in our mouths and our minds. How exactly does this alchemy work, and what are the larger cultural and environmental implications? Collaborating in the laboratory and the kitchen, Ole G. Mouritsen and Klavs Styrb k investigate the multiple ways in which food texture influences taste. Combining scientific analysis with creative intuition and a sophisticated knowledge of food preparation, they write a one-of-a-kind book for food lovers and food science scholars. By mapping the mechanics of mouthfeel, Mouritsen and Styrb k advance a greater awareness of its link to our culinary preferences. Gaining insight into the textural properties of raw vegetables, puffed rice, bouillon, or ice cream can help us make healthier and more sustainable food choices. Through mouthfeel, we can recreate the physical feelings of foods we love with other ingredients or learn to latch onto smarter food options. Mastering texture also leads to more adventurous gastronomic experiments in the kitchen, allowing us to reach even greater heights of taste sensation.
Most of the antibiotics now in use have been discovered more or
less by chance, and their mechanisms of action have only been
elucidated after their discovery. To meet the medical need for
next-generation antibiotics, a more rational approach to antibiotic
development is clearly needed.
Around 1885, Alfred Barnard was secretary of Harper's Weekly Gazette, a journal dedicated to the wine and spirit trade. In order to provide his readers with the history and descriptions of the whisky-making process, Barnard decided to visit all distilleries in Scotland, England and Ireland. Accompanied by friends, he visited over 150 distilleries. The names found in his reports still excite the dedicated whisky connoisseur today, as well as others whose fame has faded since the end of the 19th century. The appeal of Barnard's book lies not only in the technical descriptions of each distillery's processes, but also in the colourful descriptions of his journeys, brimming with historical colour and detail. A superbly illustrated facsimile edition, with over 200 engravings, this book is a complete guide to the origins of Scotland's national drink, as well as a lively picture of life and travel in the Victorian age.
Glass is a material with essentially unlimited application possibilities. This second edition of a comprehensive reference in glass science, points out the correlation between the performance of industrial processes and practice-relevant properties, such as strength and optical properties. Interdisciplinary in his approach, the author discusses both the science and technology, starting with an outline of history and applications, glass structure, and rheology. The sections on properties include mechanical strength and contact resistance, ageing, mechanics of glass processes, the production and control of residual stresses, high-tech products, and current research and development. Applications include glazing, packaging, optical glass, glass fibers for reinforcement, and abrasive tools. The development of touchscreen technology showed how important were the design and resistance of thin flexible glass and these new thin aluminosilicate glasses are also discussed.
This textbook provides an integral and integrated treatment of industrial-relevant problems for students of both chemistry and chemical engineering.
As such, this work combines the four disciplines of chemical technology - chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering and general chemical technology - and is organized into two main parts. The first covers the fundamentals, as well as the analysis and design of industrial processes, while the second section presents 20 concrete processes, exemplifying the inherent applied nature of chemical technology. These are selected so that they all differ with respect to at least one important aspect, such as the type and design of the reactor, the chemistry involved or the separation process used. As a result, readers will recapitulate, deepen and exercise the chemical and engineering principles and their interplay, as well as being able to apply them to industrial practice.
Instructive figures, rules of thumb for swift but reliable estimating of parameters, data of chemical media, and examples utilizing data from industrial processes facilitate and enhance the study process. A small general survey of selected modern trends, such as multifunctional and micro reactors, or new solvents for homogeneous catalysis, such as ionic liquids, point out to the reader that this is not a concluded discipline, but a developing field with many challenges waiting to be solved.From the reviews: ""This is an excellent book. The authors have set themselves a daunting task: combining in one volume the basics of industrial chemistry, physical chemistry, catalysis, and chemical engineering. The result is a highly readable and useful textbook that covers all the fundamental aspects of technical chemistry and fits well with today's curricula... There are several other good textbooks that target one or more of the specific subjects..., but this is the first well written and clearly presented comprehensive textbook on modern chemical technology. In summary, this book is timely, useful, well thought out and well presented. It contains lots of useful knowledge. I highly recommend it to teachers of chemical technology, to senior undergraduates and graduate students in chemistry who are interested in the industrial aspects of their profession, and of course to chemical engineers."" -Angewandte Chemie, Int. Ed. 2013
A compilation of 58 carefully selected, topical articles from the Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, this three-volume handbook provides a wealth of information on economically important basic foodstuffs, raw materials, additives, and processed foods, including a section on animal feed. It brings together the chemical and physical characteristics, production processes and production figures, main uses, toxicology and safety information in one single resource. More than 40 % of the content has been added or updated since publication of the 7th edition of the Encyclopedia in 2011 and is available here in print for the first time. The result is a "best of Ullmann's", bringing the vast knowledge to the desks of professionals in the food and feed industries.
Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high-performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self-healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valuable for a large number of applications, such as heat exchangers, reaction vessels, funace construction, radiation shielding, implants for medical technology, and capacitor components in electronics.
Derived from the renowned" DECHEMA Corrosion Handbook," this text provides a comprehensive overview of corrosion protection and prevention on the high-performance materials Titanium, Tantalum and Zirconium.
A wide-ranging exploration of the science and practice of food frying Frying is one of the world's most popular methods of food preparation. Whether using oils or fats, it is valued for the particular flavors and textures it can bring, and represents a multibillion-dollar sector of the global economy. Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Safety explores this important cooking technique in its scientific dimensions, charting the relationships between the chemical reactions produced during frying, the changes in food quality that these engender, and associated digestive and health-related issues. By outlining these connections, the author provides an aid to a safer, healthier approach to food frying. Topics covered range from culturally specific forms of frying to detailed analyses of the chemical and biochemical processes involved in its practice. Delivering these insights in a practical and easy-to-follow manner, this unique text includes: A complete survey of food frying, encompassing cultural, chemical, biochemical, and toxicological concerns Guidance on the accurate assessment of health, quality, and safety issues associated with food frying Coverage of the latest technologies and methods involved with frying Information on the possible future development of fried foods Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Safety is an invaluable resource for all those who work with fried foods, whether they be food industry professionals, food scientists, or workers in the oil and fat industries.
This second, extended and updated edition presents the current state of kinetics of chemical reactions, combining basic knowledge with results recently obtained at the frontier of science. Special attention is paid to the problem of the chemical reaction complexity with theoretical and methodological concepts illustrated throughout by numerous examples taken from heterogeneous catalysis combustion and enzyme processes. Of great interest to graduate students in both chemistry and chemical engineering.
Written by renowned researchers in this field, this up-to date advanced treatise fills a gap in the literature on glasses. It gives an overview of basic experimental data, of its collection, prediction and theoretical interpretation, thereby paving the way to a deeper understanding of these topics.
The present monograph covers the whole spectrum of problems involved in the interpretation of glasses and their properties such as glass transition, relaxation, viscosity, existing and possible unexpected future applications of glasses.
The book is recommended for students, to both new and experienced researchers in the field of materials science, in particular in glasses and glass-ceramics, classical and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An excellent source of new ideas and inspiration for a wide circle of readers working in other areas of science.With a preface by L. David Pye and a foreword by Edgar D. Zanotto
This beautifully presented Little Book is an excellent introduction to the world of craft beer including the major UK, US, and European microbreweries. It includes a fascinating history of the product, how it's made, how best to drink it and details of the world's finest craft beers. The book includes a description of more than 100 of the very best craft beers in the world including details of the different varieties and what distinguishes them. It is completely up-to-date, including details of new and emerging beers and microbreweries. What's more, an introduction explores the current craft beer boom and how brewers are coping with this surge in demand,making this attractive Little Book a great introduction for anyone looking to learn about the history past and present of craft beer. And also how best to enjoy it!
Filling a real knowledge gap, this handbook and ready reference is
both modern and forward-looking in its emphasis on the "bench to
bedside" translational approach to drug development.
With more than 40 contributions from expert authors, this is an extensive overview of all important research topics in the field of bioengineering, including metabolic engineering, biotransformations and biomedical applications. Alongside several chapters dealing with biotransformations and biocatalysis, a whole section is devoted to biofuels and the utilization of biomass. Current perspectives on synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches are presented, involving such example organisms as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, while a further section covers topics in biomedical engineering including drug delivery systems and biopharmaceuticals. The book concludes with chapters on computer-aided bioprocess engineering and systems biology. This is a part of the Advanced Biotechnology book series, covering all pertinent aspects of the field with each volume prepared by eminent scientists who are experts on the topic in question. Invaluable reading for biotechnologists and bioengineers, as well as those working in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
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