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The first statistics guide focussing on practical application to process control design and maintenance Statistics for Process Control Engineers is the only guide to statistics written by and for process control professionals. It takes a wholly practical approach to the subject. Statistics are applied throughout the life of a process control scheme from assessing its economic benefit, designing inferential properties, identifying dynamic models, monitoring performance and diagnosing faults. This book addresses all of these areas and more. The book begins with an overview of various statistical applications in the field of process control, followed by discussions of data characteristics, probability functions, data presentation, sample size, significance testing and commonly used mathematical functions. It then shows how to select and fit a distribution to data, before moving on to the application of regression analysis and data reconciliation. The book is extensively illustrated throughout with line drawings, tables and equations, and features numerous worked examples. In addition, two appendices include the data used in the examples and an exhaustive catalogue of statistical distributions. The data and a simple-to-use software tool are available for download. The reader can thus reproduce all of the examples and then extend the same statistical techniques to real problems. * Takes a back-to-basics approach with a focus on techniques that have immediate, practical, problem-solving applications for practicing engineers, as well as engineering students * Shows how to avoid the many common errors made by the industry in applying statistics to process control * Describes not only the well-known statistical distributions but also demonstrates the advantages of applying the large number that are less well-known * Inspires engineers to identify new applications of statistical techniques to the design and support of control schemes * Provides a deeper understanding of services and products which control engineers are often tasked with assessing This book is a valuable professional resource for engineers working in the global process industry and engineering companies, as well as students of engineering. It will be of great interest to those in the oil and gas, chemical, pulp and paper, water purification, pharmaceuticals and power generation industries, as well as for design engineers, instrument engineers and process technical support.
The first guide devoted to the functions, structures, and applications of natural hydrocolloids In today's health-conscious climate, the demand for natural food products is growing all the time. Natural hydrocolloids, therefore, have never been more popular. With their thickening, stabilizing, gelling, fat replacing, and binding qualities, these naturally occurring, plant-based polymers can fulfil many of the same functions as commercial ingredients like xanthan, guar, gum Arabic, pectin, and starch. Moreover, certain health benefits have been linked with their often biological active compounds and high-fiber compositions, including potential prebiotic effects and the reduction of blood cholesterol levels. Application of these novel hydrocolloids is, however, still underexplored. Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids aims to remedy this by providing a thorough overview of their structure-function relationships, rheological aspects, and potential utility in mainly the food and pharmaceutical industries. This accessible, quick-reference guide features: A comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the most significant research currently available on natural hydrocolloids Examinations of the major functions and rheological aspects of novel hydrocolloids Information on the potential applications of biopolymers within both foods and pharmaceutical systems Collaborations from an international team of food scientists Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids: Rheology and Functions offers scientists, engineers, technologists, and researchers alike a unique and in-depth account of the uncharted world of novel hydrocolloids, their uses, properties, and potential benefits.
This book includes chapters based on the potential uses of polysaccharides such as fibers in food and non-food applications. The complexity of their synthesis in plants, the highly multidisciplinary character of polysaccharide research, and the wide variety of applications from food to clothing to energy are addressed in this volume. The authors describe in detail how these latter grand challenges are of great importance in research, especially in the midst of enormous overpopulation and economic issues. Therefore, the volume contributes additional information to the chemical, nutritional, medical, and energy roles of these bio-based products, finding applications in diverse fields of their raw and composite forms. This volume is a useful resource for graduate students and contains themes for instructors and senior research leaders. Written by internationally renowned experts, it is aimed at workers in polymer laboratories, classrooms, and policy makers.
Nanoparticle Technology Handbook, Third Edition, is an updated and expanded authoritative reference providing both the theory behind nanoparticles and the practical applications of nanotechnology. This third edition features twenty new chapters, providing a reference much broader in scope than the previous edition. Over 140 experts in nanotechnology and/or particle technology contributed to this new edition. The book not only includes the theory behind nanoparticles, but also the practical applications of nanotechnology. It examines future possibilities and new innovations and contains important knowledge on nanoparticle characterization and the effect of nanoparticles on the environment and humans. Nanoparticle technology is a new and revolutionary technology, which is increasingly used in electronic devices and nanomaterials. It handles the preparation, processing, application and characterization of nanoparticles and has become the core of nanotechnology as an extension of conventional fine particle/powder technology. Nanoparticle technology plays an important role in the implementation of nanotechnology in many engineering and industrial fields, including electronic devices, advanced ceramics, new batteries, engineered catalysts, functional paint and ink, drug delivery system, biotechnology, etc., making use of the unique properties of nanoparticles, which are completely different from those of bulk materials.
Offering comprehensive coverage of this hot topic, this two-volume handbook and ready reference treats a wide range of important aspects, from synthesis and catalytic properties of carbon materials to their applications as metal-free catalysts in various important reactions and industrial processes. Following a look at recent advances in the development of carbon materials as carbon-based metal-free catalysts, subsequent sections deal with a mechanistic understanding for the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with a special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite. Examples of important catalytic processes covered include clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection, and synthetic chemistry. With contributions from world-leading scientists, this is an indispensable source of information for academic and industrial researchers in catalysis, green chemistry, electrochemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, energy technology, and chemical engineering, as well as graduates and scientists entering the field.
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, Fourth Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the chemical, biochemical, microbiological, and physico-chemical aspects of cheese, taking the reader from rennet and acid coagulation of milk, to the role of cheese and related foods in addressing public health issues. The work addresses the science from the basic definition of cheese, to the diverse factors that affect the quality of cheese. Understanding these fermented milk-based food products is vital to a global audience, with the market for cheese continuing to increase even as new nutritional options are explored. Additional focus is provided on the specific aspects of the ten major variety cheese families as defined by the characteristic features of their ripening. The book provides over 1000 varieties of this globally popular food.
This widely respected and frequently consulted reference work provides a wealth of information and guidance on industrial chemistry and biotechnology. Industries covered span the spectrum from salt and soda ash to advanced dyes chemistry, the nuclear industry, the rapidly evolving biotechnology industry, and, most recently, electrochemical energy storage devices and fuel cell science and technology. Other topics of surpassing interest to the world at large are covered in chapters on fertilizers and food production, pesticide manufacture and use, and the principles of sustainable chemical practice, referred to as green chemistry. Finally, considerable space and attention in the Handbook are devoted to the subjects of safety and emergency preparedness. It is worth noting that virtually all of the chapters are written by individuals who are embedded in the industries whereof they write so knowledgeably.
The book is structured into 2 parts: Part 1: Overview of microscopy techniques and software used for microstructural analyses Different types of the following techniques are discussed in detail: light microscopy (including bright field, polarised and confocal scanning laser microscopy) and electron microscopy (mainly scanning and transmission electron microscopy). The description of these techniques also includes the staining procedures and sample preparation methods developed. Emerging microscopy techniques are also covered, reflecting the latest advances in this field. Part 2: Microstructure of various dairy foods This part is divided into sections related to the microstructure of milk, cheeses, yoghurts, powders and fat products. In addition, there is a review of the localisation of microorganism within the microstructure of various dairy products.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
Vitamin E is a well described and established fat-soluble essential micronutrient and as such has to be provided to the human body on a regular basis in order to avoid deficiency and maintain a healthy status. This is well established and also reviewed in a number of publications. However, a huge body of evidence has accumulated over the last decade, or so, which provides new insights on the mode of action of vitamin E, and the biological role of the tocopherol isomers, and sheds new light on the role of vitamin E in human health. Both fundamental knowledge gain and new data on the role and challenges of vitamin E as an essential micronutrient, including emerging evidence on clinical benefits, will be addressed to put this essential micronutrient in the appropriate perspective. Given this level of new evidence which has emerged over the recent years, a book on vitamin E will put into perspective the concerns which have been raised on vitamin E and which resulted in a misinformation and confusion of the public regarding the importance of vitamin E for human health. This book will reemphasize that Vitamin E is clearly required for human health and its inadequacy leads to increased risk of a variety of diseases. In addition new data of non-communicable diseases (NCD) dependent on vitamin E status show that a lifetime of low intake increases risks of development, severity and complications of NCDs. This text will put the vitamin E case into an up-to-date, science based, applicable real-life perspective and offer pragmatic solutions for its safe and personalized use beyond the various methodological and statistical controversies. The purpose of this book is also to raise awareness not only in the nutrition and medical community, but also in the public media that there are a number of health conditions where an increased intake of vitamin E can be of potential importance. Further this review should also stimulate funding organizations and agencies to increase their support for vitamin E research in order to facilitate the further exploration of the safe and efficacious use of this essential micronutrient.
This handbook is dedicated to the next generation of automation engineers working in the fields of measurement, control, and safety, describing the sensors and detectors used in the measurement of process variables.
The first and only comprehensive reference/solutions manual for managing food safety in low-moisture foods The first book devoted to an increasingly critical public health issue, Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods reviews the current state of the science on the prevalence and persistence of bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods and describes proven techniques for preventing food contamination for manufacturers who produce those foods. Many pathogens, such as Salmonella, due to their enhanced thermal resistance in dry environments, can survive the drying process and may persist for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods, especially when stored in refrigerated environments. Bacterial contamination of low-moisture foods, such as peanut butter, present a vexing challenge to food safety, and especially now, in the wake of widely publicized food safety related events, food processors urgently need up-to-date, practical information on proven measures for containing the risk of contamination. While much has been written on the subject, until now it was scattered throughout the world literature in scientific and industry journals. The need for a comprehensive treatment of the subject has never been greater, and now this book satisfies that need. * Discusses a wide variety of foods and evaluates multiple processing platforms from the standpoint of process validation of all food safety objectives for finished food products * Takes a practical approach integrating the latest scientific and technological advances in a handy working resource * Presents all known sources and risk factors for pathogenic bacteria of concern in the manufacturing environment for low-moisture/water activity products * Characterizes the persistence and thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens in both the environment and most low-moisture food products Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods is a much-needed resource for food microbiologists and food industry scientists, as well as managers and executives in companies that produce and use low-moisture foods. It also belongs on the reference shelves of food safety regulatory agencies worldwide.
The progress in polymer science is revealed in the chapters of
"Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference." In Volume 1, this is
reflected in the improved understanding of the properties of
polymers in solution, in bulk and in confined situations such as in
thin films. Volume 2 addresses new characterization techniques,
such as high resolution optical microscopy, scanning probe
microscopy and other procedures for surface and interface
characterization. Volume 3 presents the great progress achieved in
precise synthetic polymerization techniques for vinyl monomers to
control macromolecular architecture: the development of metallocene
and post-metallocene catalysis for olefin polymerization, new ionic
polymerization procedures, and atom transfer radical
polymerization, nitroxide mediated polymerization, and reversible
addition-fragmentation chain transfer systems as the most often
used controlled/living radical polymerization methods. Volume 4 is
devoted to kinetics, mechanisms and applications of ring opening
polymerization of heterocyclic monomers and cycloolefins (ROMP), as
well as to various less common polymerization techniques.
Polycondensation and non-chain polymerizations, including dendrimer
synthesis and various "click" procedures, are covered in Volume 5.
Volume 6 focuses on several aspects of controlled macromolecular
architectures and soft nano-objects including hybrids and
bioconjugates. Many of the achievements would have not been
possible without new characterization techniques like AFM that
allowed direct imaging of single molecules and nano-objects with a
precision available only recently. An entirely new aspect in
polymer science is based on the combination of bottom-up methods
such as polymer synthesis and molecularly programmed self-assembly
with top-down structuring such as lithography and surface
templating, as presented in Volume 7. It encompasses polymer and
nanoparticle assembly in bulk and under confined conditions or
influenced by an external field, including thin films,
inorganic-organic hybrids, or nanofibers. Volume 8 expands these
concepts focusing on applications in advanced technologies, e.g. in
electronic industry and centers on combination with top down
approach and functional properties like conductivity. Another type
of functionality that is of rapidly increasing importance in
polymer science is introduced in volume 9. It deals with various
aspects of polymers in biology and medicine, including the response
of living cells and tissue to the contact with biofunctional
particles and surfaces. The last volume is devoted to the scope and
potential provided by environmentally benign and green polymers, as
well as energy-related polymers. They discuss new technologies
needed for a sustainable economy in our world of limited resources.
A new wind is blowing through the rich Belgian beer landscape, loosely inspired by the American and international craft beer revolution. The latest batch of Belgian brewers are reconciling tradition with experimentation in a varied, seemingly inexhaustible, stream of new beers. This book tracks the current scene and follows the author as he brews the most popular beers in his kitchen. Included here are recipes and instructions for an accessible 'brew-in-a-bag' method of making craft beer at home. You'll discover the brewing secrets of cutting edge producers like Dok Brewing Company, Resistance, Cabardouche, L'Ermitage and many others.
Drawing on multidisciplinary perspectives from engineering, economics, business, science, and human behavior, this text presents an unrivalled introduction to how engineering practice can contribute to sustainable development. Varied approaches for assessing the sustainability of engineering and other human activities are presented in detail, and potential solutions to meet key challenges are proposed, with an emphasis on those that require engineering skills. Each concept and approach is supported by mathematical representation, solved problems, real-world examples, and self-study exercises. Topics covered range from introductory material on the nature of sustainability, to more advanced approaches for assessment and design. Prerequisites for each chapter are clearly explained so the text can be adapted to meet the needs of students from a range of backgrounds. Software tutorials, project statements and solutions, lecture slides, and a solutions manual accompany the book online, making this an invaluable resource for courses in sustainable engineering, as well as a useful reference for industry practitioners.
A broad overview of foodborne infectious diseases, this book covers recent outbreaks, highlighting the food sources and pathogens involved. It also examines foodborne infectious diseases in travelers that are not commonly seen in the United States, outbreak investigation, sources and vehicles of foodborne pathogens as well as diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of foodborne infectious diseases. The authors explore the relationship between antibiotic use in animal food and its effects on human health, and the use of "good bacteria" in food to promote health and treat disease.
Hydrogenation with Low-Cost Transition Metals describes recent developments in the preparation of catalysts and their catalytic abilities in chemoselective hydrogenation for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceutical compounds. Emphasizing the use of low-cost metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Ag) that are often present in the form of nanoparticles, the book provides valuable reaction mechanism schemes, engineering solutions, and perspective for the field.
A solid introduction to the field of surfactant science, this new edition provides updated information about surfactant uses, structures, and preparation, as well as seven new chapters expanding on technology applications. Offers a comprehensive introduction and reference of the science and technology of surface active materials Elaborates, more fully than prior editions, aspects of surfactant crystal structure as well as their effects on applications Adds more information on new classes and applications of natural surfactants in light of environmental consequences of surfactant use
At the start of the eighteenth century London had almost 200 breweries producing close on 2 million barrels of beer every year, making the mighty metropolis the brewing capital of the world. By 1976, when the once-mighty Whitbread halted production at their famous Chiswell Street headquarters, there were only nine brewers left in the capital. The story of brewing in London is the story of the rise and fall of an industry that gave the world such famous beer styles as porter, stout, brown ale and India pale ale. It is a story of innovation and growth, and ultimately of decline and homogenisation. This fully illustrated book explores the colourful and fascinating liquid history of brewing in the capital, from the glory years when the likes of Barclay Perkins, Charrington, Truman's and Whitbread were household names, through to the dark days of the 1970s and 1980s when the industry's decline looked terminal. But this is a story with a happy ending for, as Brewing in London reveals, the noble art of beer making is once again thriving in the capital as an ever-increasing number of micro and craft brewers have transformed the city into one of the most exciting beer destinations on the planet.
Cereal processing can be said to incorporate three stages: harvesting, which includes threshing and winnowing, in preparation for storage of the cereal grain; primary processing, which involves further treatment of the grain such as hulling and milling; and secondary processing, which includes processes such as baking or fermenting which make the grain suitable for human consumption.;"Cereal Processing" focuses on the processing of four cereals - maize (or corn), rice (or paddy), sorghum, and wheat - which are important foodstuffs around the world, looking at traditional and improved methods and equipment, especially threshers, mills and hullers. There are also checklists and case studies to help those intending to set up a cereal processing enterprise to make informed decisions about processes and technology.;Food Cycle Technology Source Books are designed for people who have no technical background or previous knowledge of the technologies. The titles in this series offer information on ways of improving the technology of food processing and increasing the quality and range of foodstuffs produced. While not providing instructions for actual processing, these source books are inte
The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest biotechnologies employed by humanity. In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced from ethylene. Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavourings, colourings, medicines, and as a biofuel. This book discusses ethanol production, cellular mechanisms and its health impacts. Topics include the production of ethanol from synthesis gas in flowed vapour-solid catalytic systems; producing hydrogen from ethanol reforming processes through inorganic membrane reactors; the potential role of epigenetic factors in the aetiology of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder; ethanol investment decisions; cellulosic ethanol production through bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass; and the effects of withdrawal from ethanol use on emotional learning.
A comprehensive review of the many new developments in the growing food processing and packaging field Revised and updated for the first time in a decade, this book discusses packaging implications for recent nonthermal processing technologies and mild food preservation such as high pressure processing, irradiation, pulsed electric fields, microwave sterilization, and other hurdle technologies. It reviews typical nonthermal processes, the characteristics of food products after nonthermal treatments, and packaging parameters to preserve the quality and enhance the safety of the products. In addition, the critical role played by packaging materials during the development of a new nonthermal processed product, and how the package is used to make the product attractive to consumers, is discussed. Packaging for Nonthermal Processing of Food, Second Edition provides up to date assessments of consumer attitudes to nonthermal processes and novel packaging (both in the U.S. and Europe). It offers a brand new chapter covering smart packaging, including thermal, microbial, chemical, and light sensing biosensors, radio frequency identification systems, and self-heating and cooling packaging. There is also a new chapter providing an overview of packaging laws and regulations in the United States and Europe. Covers the packaging types required for all major nonthermal technologies, including high pressure processing, pulsed electric field, irradiation, ohmic heating, and others Features a brand new chapter on smart packaging, including biosensors (thermal-, microbial-, chemical- and light-sensing), radio frequency identification systems, and self-heating and cooling packaging Additional chapters look at the current regulatory scene in the U.S. and Europe, as well as consumer attitudes to these novel technologies Editors and contributors bring a valuable mix of industry and research experience Packaging for Nonthermal Processing of Food, Second Edition offers many benefits to the food industry by providing practical information on the relationship between new processes and packaging materials, to academia as a source of fundamental knowledge about packaging science, and to regulatory agencies as an avenue for acquiring a deeper understanding of the packaging requirements for new processes.
Describes in one volume the data received during experiments on detonation in high explosive charges This book brings together, in one volume, information normally covered in a series of journal articles on high explosive detonation tests, so that developers can create new explosive technologies. It focuses on the charges that contain inert elements made of materials in which a sound velocity is significantly higher than a detonation velocity. It also summarizes the results of experimental, numerical, and theoretical investigations of explosion systems, which contain high modulus ceramic components. The phenomena occurring in such systems are described in detail: desensitization of high explosives, nonstationary detonation processes, energy focusing, and Mach stems formation. Formation of hypersonic flows of ceramic particles arising due to explosive collapse of ceramic tubes is another example of the issues discussed. Explosion Systems with Inert High Modulus Components: Increasing the Efficiency of Blast Technologies and Their Applications also looks at the design of explosion protective structures based on high modulus ceramic materials. The structural transformations, caused in metallic materials by the energy focusing, or by the impact of hypersonic ceramic jets are also discussed. These transformations include, but not limited to adiabatic shear banding, phase transformations, mechanical twinning, melting, boiling, and even evaporation of the impacted substrates. Specifically discusses in one volume the explosions involved with inert high modules components normally scattered over numerous journal articles Covers methods to increase energy output of a weak explosive by encasing it in a higher explosive Discusses the specifics of explosive systems containing high modulus inert elements Details the process of detonation and related phenomena, as well as the design of novel highly performant explosive systems Describes the transformation in materials impacted due to explosion in such systems Explosion Systems with Inert High Modulus Components will be of great interest to specialists working in fields of energy of the explosion and explosion safety as well as university staff, students, and postgraduate students studying explosion phenomena, explosive technologies, explosion safety, and materials science.
Selenium (Se) is a chemical element of concern due to its toxicity and increasing anthropogenic release to the environment. Se oxyanions, selenite and selenate, are water-soluble, bioavailable and toxic, whereas elemental selenium, Se(0), is solid and less toxic. Nevertheless, Se(0) is potentially harmful as particulate Se(0) has been reported to be bioavailable to bivalves, to fish and also prone to re-oxidation. In the current work we investigated the reduction of selenite and selenate using pure and mixed microbial cultures. A novel strain of Pseudomonas moraviensis showing high Se tolerance was isolated, classified and characterized for the first time. Biogenic Se(0) shows colloidal properties due to its nanosize scale and negatively-charged biopolymer coating. To address the need for efficient solid-liquid separation of biogenic Se(0) prior to environmental discharge, we tested and compared several physical-chemical separation methods. Centrifugation and filtration can be efficiently used for Se(0) separation but they are not feasible at the industrial scale due to prohibitive costs. Alternatively, chemical coagulation by metal salts, e.g. aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, resulted in high removal rates around 90%. Electrocoagulation reached the highest colloidal Se(0) removal efficiency of 97% when using iron electrodes. In conclusion, biogenic Se(0) must be removed in a biological post-treatment step and several approaches described in this work could be successfully used.
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