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This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes.In addition to being mathematically rigorous, these methods accommodate key practical issues, for example, direct optimization of process economics, time-varying economic cost functions and computational efficiency. Numerous comments and remarks providing fundamental understanding of the merging of process economics and feedback control into a single framework are included. A control engineer can easily tailor the many detailed examples of industrial relevance given within the text to a specific application. The authors present a rich collection of new research topics and references to significant recent work making Economic Model Predictive Control an important source of information and inspiration for academics and graduate students researching the area and for process engineers interested in applying its ideas.
The first systematic reference on the topic with an emphasis on the characteristics and dimension of the reinforcing fillerVolume One begins by discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of macro and micro composites.
Volume Two focuses on nanoparticles, investigating their synthesis, surface modification and characterization, as well as the manufacturing technology of nanocomposites and their interface modification and characterization.
Volume Three on biocomposites discusses the synthesis, structure and properties of natural and synthetic biopolymers, as well as the preparation, microstructure and properties of biofibers, together with their surface modification, characterization, and manufacturing.
Antibacterial agents act against bacterial infection either by killing the bacterium or by arresting its growth. They do this by targeting bacterial DNA and its associated processes, attacking bacterial metabolic processes including protein synthesis, or interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and function."Antibacterial Agents" is an essential guide to this important class of chemotherapeutic drugs. Compounds are organised according to their target, which helps the reader understand the mechanism of action of these drugs and how resistance can arise. The book uses an integrated "lab-to-clinic" approach which covers drug discovery, source or synthesis, mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, clinical aspects (including links to current guidelines, significant drug interactions, cautions and contraindications), prodrugs and future improvements.Agents covered include: agents targeting DNA - quinolone, rifamycin, and nitroimidazole antibacterial agentsagents targeting metabolic processes - sulfonamide antibacterial agents and trimethoprimagents targeting protein synthesis - aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics, chloramphenicol, and oxazolidinonesagents targeting cell wall synthesis - β-Lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics, cycloserine, isonaizid, and daptomycin
"Antibacterial Agents" will find a place on the bookshelves of students of pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutical sciences, drug design/discovery, and medicinal chemistry, and as a bench reference for pharmacists and pharmaceutical researchers in academia and industry.
Beyond use in the consumer markets, detergents affect applications ranging from automotive lubricants to remediation techniques for oil spills and other environmental contaminants, paper and textile processing, and the formulation of paints, inks, and colorants. Faced with many challenges and choices, formulators must choose the composition of detergents carefully. The fourth and latest installment of the "Handbook of Detergents, "Part D: Formulation enables formulators to meet the demands of the increasing complexity of formulations, economic and sustainability constraints, and reducing the impact of detergents on the environment to which they will eventually be released.
Serving as an all-in-one guide to the entire field of coatings technology, this encyclopedic reference covers a diverse range of topics-including basic concepts, coating types, materials, processes, testing and applications-summarizing both the latest developments and standard coatings methods. Take advantage of the insights and experience of over 100 recognized experts in over 100 chapters to select and apply the best coatings for your own product needs. Emphasizing an interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and approaches, the Coatings Technology Handbook, Second Edition review the most recent testing methods, including infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, weathering, and cure monitoring...extensively details a variety of contemporary processes such as flexography, electroless plating, flame surface treatment, embossing, and calendaring ...analyses current materials and surface coatings from resins and thermoplastic elastomers to peelable medical, radiation-cured, leather, and metal coatings...and much more.
The book highlights intricate predisposing factors for pathogenesis of nutritional anemia. It delivers valuable information related to this public health hazard influencing the nutritional health of preschool children. The book is valuable for readers in diverse fields to gain insight of the concept of nutritional anemia in preschool children. Additionally, book furnishes clinical and laboratory methods in a comparative way to assess nutritional anemia. Impact of the disorder on health of preschool children has been covered in a simple language. The book mentions need for interventional strategies for the management of nutritional anemia. Infants, preschool children and women during pregnancy and lactation are highly susceptible to dietary deficiency of iron, folic acid and cyanocobalamin leading to comparatively, higher predisposition to development of nutritional anemia. The condition has myriad of ill effects on nutritional health of preschool children.
This book, edited by members of the Committee of Future Energy and Social Systems, The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan, describes energy technology roadmaps for Japan post-Fukushima. In this work, energy technology experts show quantitatively the advantages and disadvantages of major energy technologies with which they are involved, in a unified chapter structure with figures illustrating the technology development perspectives. The future energy vision for Japan together with the pathway is quantitatively discussed, explicitly considering the contributions of individual energy technology by referring to the technology roadmaps. The pathways for future energy vision thus derived will be useful not only for all energy researchers but also for graduate students in the field to grasp the potential of the technologies and future energy system of Japan.
Polymer science faces the challenge of meeting growing market demand for polymers whilst achieving sustainability through environmentally friendly processes. Microwave heating has emerged as a greener technique that accelerates a variety of chemical reactions, including polymerization. Microwave-assisted reactions can be cleaner and more rapid and economic analyses suggest that the cost of curing polymers may be reduced by switching over to the use of microwaves. This book provides comprehensive coverage of microwave-assisted polymerization. The first chapter introduces readers to the theory behind the accelerating effects of microwaves on chemical reactions and covers the types of commercial microwave reactors being used for synthesis and processing of polymers that are available on the market. Subsequent chapters are organised by type of reaction, including radical homo and co-polymerizations, step growth polymerization and peptide synthesis. Importantly, analysis of processes and product properties in comparison with conventional methods is also detailed. This book will be a valuable resource for green chemists and polymer scientists and engineers who want to develop sustainable processes.
The safe disposal and reuse of industrial and consumer rubber waste continues to pose a serious threat to environmental safety and health, despite the fact that the technology now exits for its effective recycling and reuse. Mountains of used tires confirm the belief that chemically crosslinked rubber is one of the most difficult materials to recycle. That coupled with a long history of failed attempts to create quality products from crumb rubber has resulted in such a resistance to new ideas concerning rubber recycling that very little literature on the subject has even seen the light of day. Rubber Recycling is one of those rare books that has the potential to directly impact our ecological well-being. The editors of this important volume have filled a void in technological responsibility by bringing together a group of international experts who, using substantial research evidence, prove that the utilization of recycled rubber is not just desirable, but is also quite feasible and profitable. This text provides a thorough overview of the fundamentals of rubber and the challenges of recycling. However, the heart of the book lies in its detailed explanation of the various processes currently available to breakdown, recycle, and reuse crosslinked rubber. These include -- -Unconventional polymer recycling -High-pressure, high-temperature sintering -Ultrasonic and non ultrasonic devulcanization -The use of tire particles as replacement aggregates for low-strength concrete material -The utilization of powdered rubber waste in the production of rubber compounds -The future potential for recycling waste rubber by blending it with waste plastics Never forgetting that these technologies aremeaningless without industry participation, the book concludes with a highly practical discussion on how present market demands can be met with recycled rubber.
Rediscover the economic potential of growing Ribes cultivars in the United States and Canada! Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries: A Guide for Growers, Marketers, and Researchers in North America explores the biology and history of growing these small fruits as commercial crops in North America. This book provides authoritative information on the potential risks and profits of establishing a currant or gooseberry farm and offers step-by-step details for cost-effective set-up, maintenance, and post-harvest activities. This book will be a reliable reference for prospective growers and Ribes researchers. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries presents in detail the necessary components of successful Ribes culture farming, including: site and soil selection design of planting site plant propagation cultivar selection cultural practice pest and disease management harvesting and marketing The book supplies the latest production figures for Ribes crops worldwide to help you choose which crops to grow. It also contains detailed information on fruit biochemistry, allowing you to market to human health industries. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries is the first North American publication to focus exclusively on Ribes culture in more than 50 years. It's your one-stop resource for up-to-date information this side of the Atlantic Ocean. Currants, Gooseberries, and Jostaberries provides you with tables, figures, and appendices, such as a table of the state regulations governing the importation and growing of currants, gooseberries, and jostaberries as listed by the Department of Agriculture calendars of what you need to do throughout the year to prepare, plant, and manage Ribes crops a list of cultivars available in North America tables of suggested parentage for currants and gooseberries to breed for improved fruit and juice quality, disease resistance or frost resistance, or improved mechanics for harvest a site selection checklist an enterprise budget showing typical costs of producing currants and gooseberries for sale in the market
The improvement of strength and durability in polymers has implications relevant to industrial, medical, and household applications. Enhanced by the improved knowledge of the interactions between complex hierarchical structures and functional requirements, Mechanical Properties of Polymers Based on Nanostructure and Morphology focuses on new polymer materials that possess a combination of improved mechanical and other physical properties. This book specifies techniques used in structural and morphological characterization, discusses crazing and molecular variables of fracture behavior, and clarifies various modes of deformation mechanisms and orientation processes for semicrystalline polymers, block copolymers, and composites. The volume examines microindentation hardness studies and mechanisms of toughness enhancement for particle modified, amorphous and semicrystalline polymers and blends using model analysis. Experts in the field present innovations that illustrate new aspects of manufacturing, structure development, and properties of practical relevance in nanoparticle-filled thermoplastic polymers and the applications of carbon nanotube and nanofiber reinforced polymer systems. Other topics discussed in the book include alternative methods of polymer modification based on micro- and nanolayered polymers and hot compaction of oriented fibers and tapes. This book reflects the continuing research of mechanisms contributing to the structure-function relationship of nanostructured polymers and nanocomposites. Mechanical Properties of Polymers Based on Nanostructure and Morphology presents effective ways to combine improved mechanical and physical properties in polymers and form new, performance-enhanced composite materials.
Although chemical engineering and food technology are subject areas closely related to food processing systems and food plant design, coverage of the design of food plants is often sporadic and inadequately addressed in food technology and engineering books. Some books have attempted to treat food engineering from this dual point of view but, most have not achieved balanced coverage of the two. Focusing on food processing, rather than chemical plants, Food Plant Design presents precise design details with photos and drawings of different types of food processing plants, including food processing systems, refrigeration and steam systems, conveying systems, and buildings. The authors discuss the subject in an ordered format that gives you the tools to produce food products with minimum cost. Including modeling procedures for food processing systems and auxiliary systems, they elucidate synthesis techniques and procedures. Using a clear structure for different levels of information and data on different food processing alternatives, the book outlines solutions to plant design problems in the context of overall optimization of an agro-industrial system and corresponding food chain. It provides the work procedures and techniques for solving the design problems of a food processing plant and in making a defined food product.
Covering the whole area of process chemistry in the pharmaceutical
industry, this monograph provides the essential knowledge on the
basic chemistry needed for future development and key industrial
techniques, as well as morphology, engineering and regulatory
Research and development represents a vast spread of topics and can be an arena for controversy. In academia, such controversy may stem from conflicting interpretations of data and subsequent conclusions, the question of who was first to discover a particular finding and whether or not the said finding is of any value to the scientific community. R&D in corporate environments is mostly defined and driven by costs and clearly identified, consumer-focused targets. There is, however, common ground between these two approaches as both strive to maximize knowledge, though for different reasons and in differnt ways. The equipment and scientific rigor may be similar or identical, however their usage, approach and interpretation are different. This book discusses the history and background of today's food industry R&D as seen by consumers, academia and the industry itself, with several chapters dedicated to new and disruptive approaches. A must-read for all professionals in the packaged goods industry as well as students who aspire to contribute to this new industry, forcefully driven by R&D.
The implementation of ionic liquids technologies in future biorefineries is challenging. Different approaches can be applied along the entire chain of biomass valorisation to achieve a specific target molecule, from biomass pre-treatment and fractionation processes to extraction, downstream separation and purification methodologies of high value added products and pivot chemicals. This book summarises recent achievements in the use of ionic liquids in biomass processing as an alternative to conventional processes, particularly in the context of green chemistry. It features real-world case studies where high value-added products have been obtained using ionic liquid processing, demonstrating the practical applications of these technologies. The book concludes by assessing the development of further biorefineries with ionic liquids. The book is an important reference for researchers and practising chemists, bringing readers up-to-date with current research in this field.
Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease in humans and animals, but residues from these medicines can be released into the environment through a number of routes during their manufacture, use and disposal. It is only recently that the potential environmental impacts of this exposure to pharmaceuticals are being considered. The book explores where pharmaceutical residues can be found, e.g. in surface waters, drinking water, sediments and the marine environment; the sources of these residues, from manufacture through to disposal of unused medicines; how these residues break down; and how this all impacts on wildlife and human health. In reviewing the current position and examining further possible impacts, this book is an important reference for researchers working in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for environmentalists, policy makers and students on pharmacy and environmental science courses wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.
The "Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology" is a comprehensive,
two-volume reference guide to the properties, effects, and
regulation of pesticides that provides the latest and most complete
information to researchers investigating the environmental,
agricultural, veterinary, and human-health impacts of pesticide
use. Written by international experts from academia, government,
and the private sector, the "Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology" is
an in-depth examination of critical issues related to the need for,
use of, and nature of chemicals used in modern pest management.
This updated 3e carries on the book s tradition of serving as the
definitive reference on pesticide toxicology and recognizes the
seminal contribution of Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., co-Editor of the
Feature: Clear exposition of hazard identification and dose
response relationships in each chapter featuring pesticide agents
Feature: All major classes of pesticide considered.
Feature: Different routes of exposure critically
At the interface of chemical industry operations, equipment
manufacturer input, and the scientific literature, Industrial
Crystallization of Melts explores and explains melt crystallization
and purification in the industrial arena. This comprehensive
account details the orderly conversion of melts into solid, salable
end materials and procedures for purification by remelting;
summarizes key theoretical concepts relating to crystalline matter
and instationary heat transfer; and surveys the equipment available
for specific processes. It also offers over 100 tested equations,
as well as clear-cut methods for handling organic melts that call
for special crystallization provisions.
Improve the energy efficiency of process industry practices
"Sustainability in the Process Industry" explains process integration and optimization and discusses applications for improving the energy and water efficiency of industrial as well as nonindustrial energy users. Approaches for adapting these methodologies to include the integration of waste and renewable energy sources are covered. This authoritative text contains eight industrial-based case studies and nine testing examples with developed solutions. Details on software tools are also included in this practical guide.
Optimization goals and application areas within sustainable industrial process design and integration Formulating sustainable tasks as optimization problems Improving energy efficiency through process integration Heat exchange and heat recovery Water/mass integration Minimizing water use and efficient generation New, relevant process integration research results Process optimization frameworks, including mathematical programming and P-graph and S-graph frameworks Applications of process integration, modeling, and optimization software tools
Produced from plants by a process akin to alchemy, indigo has a unique chemistry that renders it compatible with all natural fibres. From the time of the ancient Egyptians it made an incredible impact worldwide as the world's only source of blue of every hue, and was also indispensable for creating a glorious range of colours when combined with other natural dyes. It is hard to imagine the incredible impact indigo must have made on the many civilizations that chanced upon it. This classic study, reissued with a new final chapter, examines this extraordinary dye from all angles: the historical, agricultural and botanical origins of the different plant sources; different production and dyeing methods; commerce and economics; various patterning techniques used on a wide range of beautiful textiles; indigo's continued presence in folklore, art and alternative medicine; and its iconic status as the dye that makes blue jeans blue. The accumulation of over twenty years research on the subject, Indigo: Egyptian Mummies to Blue Jeans is the richly told story of a commodity that has been central to international trade and textile production for centuries, across time and cultures. Richly illustrated throughout with stunning details and scenes from around the world, this is the definitive study of the fascinating dye behind blue denim.
This volume presents a wide range of new approaches aimed at improving the safety and quality of food products and agricultural commodities. Each chapter provides in-depth information on new and emerging food preservation techniques including those relating to decontamination, drying and dehydration, packaging innovations and the use of botanicals as natural preservatives for fresh animal and plant products. The 28 chapters, contributed by an international team of experienced researchers, are presented in five sections, covering: * Novel decontamination techniques * Novel preservation techniques * Active and atmospheric packaging * Food packaging * Mathematical modelling of food preservation processes * Natural preservatives This title will be of great interest to food scientists and engineers based in food manufacturing and in research establishments. It will also be useful to advanced students of food science and technology.
A textbook which is both comprehensive and comprehensible and that offers easy but scientifically sound reading to both students and professionals Now in its 12th edition in its native German, Voigt's Pharmaceutical Technology is an interdisciplinary textbook covering the fundamental principles of pharmaceutical technology. Available for the first time in English, this edition is produced in full colour throughout, with a concise, clear structure developed after consultation with students, instructors and researchers. This book: Features clear chapter layouts and easily digestible content Presents novel trends, devices and processes Discusses classical and modern manufacturing processes Covers all formulation principles including tablets, ointments, capsules, nanosystems and biopharmaceutics Takes account of legal requirements for both qualitative and quantitative composition Addresses quality assurance considerations Uniquely relates contrasting international pharmacopeia from EU, US and Japan to formulation principles Includes examples and text boxes for quicker data assimilation Written for both students studying pharmacy and industry professionals in the field as well as toxicologists, biochemists, medical lab technicians, Voigt's Pharmaceutical Technology is the essential resource for understanding the various aspects of pharmaceutical technology.
Focusing on layered compounds at the core of materials intercalation chemistry, this reference comprehensively explores clays and other classes of materials exhibiting the ability to pillar, or establish permanent intracrystalline porosity within layers. It offers an authoritative presentation of their fundamental properties as well as summaries of cutting-edge research results. Outlines modern usages of clays and other layered materials, including catalytic and photocatalytic applications. With chapters that explain basic concepts first before delving into more scientifically complex topics, the Handbook of Layered Materials -Examines chemistry of clays, pillared clays, and pillared clay heterostructures -Scrutinizes layered zirconium phosphates and phosphonates, double hydroxides, manganese oxides, metal chalcogenides, and polysilicates -Offers clear descriptions of clay-organic interactions and devotes one chapter specifically to nitroaromatic compound sorption -Covers findings in photochemistry and the molecular modeling of surface chemistry -Reports recent developments in synthesis, characterization, and host-guest chemistry -Contains over 2300 current references, formatting many into expedient tables The companion publication to the lauded Handbook of Zeolite Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker, Inc.) from the same expert editors, this reference is ideal for materials chemists and engineers; chemical engineers; and graduate-level students in these disciplines.
Provides an easy-to-read introduction to the area of polymer flooding to improve oil production The production and utilization of oil has transformed our world. However, dwindling reserves are forcing industry to manage resources more efficiently, while searching for alternative fuel sources that are sustainable and environmentally friendly. Polymer flooding is an enhanced oil recovery technique that improves sweep, reduces water production, and improves recovery in geological reservoirs. This book summarizes the key factors associated with polymers and polymer flooding--from the selection of the type of polymer through characterization techniques, to field design and implementation--and discusses the main issues to consider when deploying this technology to improve oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique introduces the area of polymer flooding at a basic level for those new to petroleum production. It describes how polymers are used to improve efficiency of "chemical" floods (involving surfactants and alkaline solutions). The book also offers a concise view of several key polymer-flooding topics that can't be found elsewhere. These are in the areas of pilot project design, field project engineering (water quality, oxygen removal, polymer dissolution equipment, filtration, pumps and other equipment), produced water treatment, economics, and some of the important field case histories that appear in the last section. Provides an easy to read introduction to polymer flooding to improve oil production whilst presenting the underlying mechanisms Employs "In A Nutshell" key point summaries at the end of each chapter Includes important field case studies to aid researchers in addressing time- and financial-consumption in dealing with this issue Discusses field engineering strategies appropriate for professionals working in field operation projects Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique is an enlightening book that will be of great interest to petroleum engineers, reservoir engineers, geoscientists, managers in petroleum industry, students in the petroleum industry, and researchers in chemical enhanced oil recovery methods.
Bringing a new drug to market is a costly time-consuming process. Increased regional and international regulation over the last twenty years, while necessary, has only served to amplify these costs. In response to this escalation, developmental strategies have shifted towards a more global approach. In order to create the most cost-effective and safe processes, it is critical for those bringing drugs to market to understand both the globally accepted regulations and the local variations. "Nonclinical Safety Assessment: A Guide to International Pharmaceutical Regulations "provides a practical description of nonclinical drug development regulations and requirements in the major market regions.
It includes: ICH - the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human UseNational regulations, including US FDA, Canada, Mercosur and Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan, India and AustraliaRepeated dose toxicity studiesCarcinogenicity; Genotoxicity; Developmental and reproductive toxicology; ImmunotoxicologyBiotechnology-derived pharmaceuticalsVaccine developmentPhototoxicity and photocarcinogenicityDegradants, impurities, excipients and metabolites
Primarily intended for those professionals actively involved in the nonclinical and clinical development of a pharmaceutical product, including toxicologists, pharmacologists, clinicians and project managers, this book provides a roadmap for successful new drug approval and marketing.""
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