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Although ceramics have been known to mankind literally for millennia, research has never ceased. Apart from the classic uses as a bulk material in pottery, construction, and decoration, the latter half of the twentieth century saw an explosive growth of application fields, such as electrical and thermal insulators, wear-resistant bearings, surface coatings, lightweight armour, or aerospace materials. In addition to plain, hard solids, modern ceramics come in many new guises such as fabrics, ultrathin films, microstructures and hybrid composites. Built on the solid foundations laid down by the 20-volume series Materials Science and Technology, Ceramics Science and Technology picks out this exciting material class and illuminates it from all sides. Materials scientists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, physicists and medical researchers alike will find this work a treasure trove for a wide range of ceramics knowledge from theory and fundamentals to practical approaches and problem solutions.
Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the development of new functional materials in areas such as energy, catalysis and electronic materials. This revised edition of Basic Solid State Chemistry has been completely rewritten and expanded to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of inorganic chemistry. Each section commences with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing seamlessly to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. This new Student Edition includes the following updates and new features: * Expanded coverage of bonding in solids, including a new section on covalent bonding and more extensive treatment of metallic bonding. * Synthetic methods are covered extensively and new topics include microwave synthesis, combinatorial synthesis, mechano-synthesis, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis. * Revised coverage of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, with additional material on semiconductors, giant and colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroics, LEDs, fibre optics and solar cells, lasers, graphene and quasicrystals. * Extended chapters on crystal defects and characterisation techniques. * Published in full colour to aid comprehension. * Extensive coverage of crystal structures for important families of inorganic solids is complemented by access to CrystalMaker(R) visualization software, allowing readers to view and rotate over 100 crystal structures in three dimensions. * Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material are available online. Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is a must-have textbook for any undergraduate or new research worker studying solid state chemistry.
A comprehensive overview of recent developments in the field of non-oxide ceramics with special emphasis placed on the combustion synthesis of group I-VI nitrides and oxynitrides. To ensure the widest possible perspective, the authors are experts in academia, industry, or government research, and each chapter discusses different synthetic methods and process parameters, as well as important material properties and applications. The result is invaluable reading for researchers and practitioners in the industry as well as those looking for an introduction to the field. It is equally of great interest to chemists and materials scientists as well as engineers working in the area of inorganic and solid-state chemistry, structural and functional materials, catalysis, metallurgy, and electrochemistry.
Cellulose and its derivatives can be found in many forms in nature and is a valuable material for all manner of applications in industry. This book is authored by an expert with many years of experience as an application engineer at renowned cellulose processing companies in the food industry. All the conventional and latest knowledge available on cellulose and its derivatives is presented. The necessary details are elucidated from a theoretical and practical viewpoint, while retaining the focus on food applications. This book is an essential source of information and includes recommendations and instructions of a general nature to assist readers in the exploration of possible applications of cellulose and its derivatives, as well as providing food for thought for the generation of new ideas for product development. Topics include gelling and rheological properties, synergistic effects with other hydrocolloids, as well as nutritional and legal aspects. The resulting compilation covers all the information and advice needed for the successful development, implementation, and handling of cellulose-containing products.
This third volume in the successful 'Drug Discovery in Infectious
Diseases' series is the first to deal with drug discovery in
helminthic infections in human and animals. The result is a broad
overview of different drug target evaluation methods, including
specific examples of successful drug development against
helminthes, and with a whole section devoted to vaccine
Written with both postgraduate students and researchers in academia and industry in mind, this reference covers the chemistry behind metal nanopowders, including production, characterization, oxidation and combustion. The contributions from renowned international scientists working in the field detail applications in technologies, scale-up processes and safety aspects surrounding their handling and storage.
Readers of this accessible book now in a revised and updated new edition are taken on a conceptual journey which passes every milestone and important feature of the HACCP landscape at a pace which is comfortable and productive. The information and ideas contained in the book will enable food industry managers and executives to take their new-found knowledge into the workplace for use in the development and implementation of HACCP systems appropriate for their products and manufacturing processes. The material is structured so that the reader can quickly assimilate the essentials of the topic. Clearly presented, this HACCP briefing includes checklists, bullet points, flow charts, schematic diagrams for quick reference, and at the start of each section the authors have provided useful key points summary boxes. HACCP: a Food Industry Briefing is an introductory-level text for readers who are unfamiliar with the subject either because they have never come across it or because they need to be reminded. The book will also make a valuable addition to material used in staff training and is an excellent core text for HACCP courses.
Historically pharmaceutical and fine chemical products have been synthesised using batch methods, but increasingly chemists are looking towards flow chemistry as a greener and more efficient alternative. In flow chemistry reactions are performed in a reactor with the reactants pumped through it. It has the benefit of being easily scaled up and it is straightforward to integrate synthesis, workup and analysis into one system. Flow chemistry is considered a greener alternative to batch chemistry because it is easier to control and minimise hazardous intermediates and by-products. There is significant interest in the use of flow chemistry both in the lab and on an industrial scale. Flow Chemistry provides an update on recent advances that have been made in the field. Particular emphasis is given to the new integrated approaches that bring together several elements to implement flow processes as a regular green chemistry tool for the chemical industries. With chapter contributions from several well-known experts in the field, this book is a valuable resource for researchers working in green chemistry and synthesis, chemical engineers and industrial chemists working in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.
Edited by two renowned medicinal chemists who have pioneered the development of personalized therapies in their respective fields, this authoritative analysis of what is already possible is the first of its kind, and the only one to focus on drug development issues. Numerous case studies from the first generation of "personalized drugs" are presented, highlighting the challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical development. While the majority of these examples are taken from the field of cancer treatment, other key emerging areas, such as neurosciences and inflammation, are also covered. With its careful balance of current and future approaches, this handbook is a prime knowledge source for every drug developer, and one that will remain up to date for some time to come. From the content: * Discovery of Predictive Biomarkers for Anticancer Drugs * Discovery and Development of Vemurafenib * Targeting Basal-Cell Carcinoma * G-Quadruplexes as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer * From Human Genetics to Drug Candidates: An Industrial Perspective on LRRK2 Inhibition as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease * Therapeutic Potential of Kinases in Asthma * DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Synthetic Lethality * Medicinal Chemistry in the Context of the Human Genome and many more
Written by the pioneers of Viagra, the first blockbuster PDE
The book series 'Polymer Nano-, Micro- and Macrocomposites' provides complete and comprehensive information on all important aspects of polymer composite research and development, including, but not limited to synthesis, filler modification, modeling, characterization as well as application and commercialization issues. Each book focuses on a particular topic and gives a balanced in-depth overview of the respective subfield of polymer composite science and its relation to industrial applications. With the books the readers obtain dedicated resources with information relevant to their research, thereby helping to save time and money. Summarizing all the most important synthesis techniques used in the lab as well as in industry, this book is comprehensive in its coverage from chemical, physical and mechanical viewpoints. This book helps readers to choose the correct synthesis route, such as suspension and miniemulsion polymerization, living polymerization, sonication, mechanical methods or the use of radiation, and so achieve the desired composite properties.
Polymer composites are materials in which the matrix polymer is reinforced with organic/inorganic fillers of a definite size and shape, leading to enhanced performance of the resultant composite. These materials find a wide number of applications in such diverse fields as geotextiles, building, electronics, medical, packaging, and automobiles.
This first systematic reference on the topic emphasizes the characteristics and dimension of this reinforcement. The authors are leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions across the globe, and adopt a practical approach here, covering such aspects as the preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymer composites.
The book begins by discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems. Interfacial characterization of the composites is discussed in detail, as is the macro- and micromechanics of the composites. Structure-property relationships in various composite systems are explained with the help of theoretical models, while processing techniques for various macro- to nanocomposite systems and the influence of processing parameters on the properties of the composite are reviewed in detail. The characterization of microstructure, elastic, viscoelastic, static and dynamic mechanical, thermal, tribological, rheological, optical, electrical and barrier properties are highlighted, as well as their myriad applications.
Divided into three volumes: Vol. 1. Macro- and Microcomposites; Vol. 2. Nanocomposites; and Vol. 3. Biocomposites.
This practical book in instrumental analytics conveys an overview of important methods of analysis and enables the reader to realistically learn the (principally technology-independent) working techniques the analytical chemist uses to develop methods and conduct validation. What is to be conveyed to the student is the fact that analysts in their capacity as problem-solvers perform services for certain groups of customers, i.e., the solution to the problem should in any case be processed in such a way as to be "fit for purpose". The book presents sixteen experiments in analytical chemistry laboratory courses. They consist of the classical curriculum used at universities and universities of applied sciences with chromatographic procedures, atom spectrometric methods, sensors and special methods (e.g. field flow fractionation , flow injection analysis and N-determination according to Kjeldahl). The carefully chosen combination of theoretical description of the methods of analysis and the detailed instructions given are what characterizes this book. The instructions to the experiments are so detailed that the measurements can, for the most part, be taken without the help of additional literature. The book is complemented with tips for effective literature and database research on the topics of organisation and the practical workflow of experiments in analytical laboratory, on the topic of the use of laboratory logs as well as on writing technical reports and grading them (Evaluation Guidelines for Laboratory Experiments). A small introduction to Quality Management, a brief glance at the history of analytical chemistry as well as a detailed appendix on the topic of safety in analytical laboratories and a short introduction to the new system of grading and marking chemicals using the "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)", round off this book. This book is therefore an indispensable workbook for students, internship assistants and lecturers (in the area of chemistry, biotechnology, food technology and environmental technology) in the basic training programme of analytics at universities and universities of applied sciences.
This is the first resource to provide researchers in academia and
industry with an urgently needed update on drug intervention
against trypanosomatides. As such, it
This is the first book to provide an integrated introduction to the nature, formation and occurrence, stability, propagation, and uses of the most common types of colloidal dispersion in the process-related industries. The primary focus is on the applications of the principles, paying attention to practical processes and problems. This is done both as part of the treatment of the fundamentals, where appropriate, and also in the separate sections devoted to specifi c kinds of industries. Throughout, the treatment is integrated, with the principles of colloid and interface science common to each dispersion type presented for each major physical property class, followed by separate treatments of features unique to emulsions, foams, or suspensions. The first half of the book introduces the fundamental principles, introducing readers to suspension formation and stability, characterization, and fl ow properties, emphasizing practical aspects throughout. The following chapters discuss a wide range of industrial applications and examples, serving to emphasize the diff erent methodologies that have been successfully applied. The author assumes no prior knowledge of colloid chemistry and, with its glossary of key terms, complete cross-referencing and indexing, this is a must-have for graduate and professional scientists and engineers who may encounter or use emulsions, foams, or suspensions, or combinations thereof, whether in process design, industrial production, or in related R&D fields.
A comprehensive overview and summary of recent achievements and the latest trends in bioinspired thermal materials. Following an introduction to different thermal materials and their effective heat transfer to other materials, the text discusses heat detection materials that are inspired by biological systems, such as fire beetles and butterflies. There then follow descriptions of materials with thermal management functionality, including those for evaporation and condensation, heat transfer and thermal insulation materials, as modeled on snake skins, polar bears and fire-resistant trees. A discussion of thermoresponsive materials with thermally switchable surfaces and controllable nanochannels as well as those with high thermal conductivity and piezoelectric sensors is rounded off by a look toward future trends in the bioinspired engineering of thermal materials. Straightforward and well structured, this is an essential reference for newcomers as well as experienced researchers in this exciting field.
Process Systems Engineering brings together the international community of researchers and engineers interested in computing-based methods in process engineering. This conference highlights the contributions of the PSE community towards the sustainability of modern society and is based on the 13th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering PSE 2018 event held San Diego, CA, July 1-5 2018. The book contains contributions from academia and industry, establishing the core products of PSE, defining the new and changing scope of our results, and future challenges. Plenary and keynote lectures discuss real-world challenges (globalization, energy, environment and health) and contribute to discussions on the widening scope of PSE versus the consolidation of the core topics of PSE.
This textbook presents key theoretical approaches to understanding issues of sustainability and environmental management, perfectly bridging the gap between engineering and environmental science. It begins with the fundamentals of environmental modelling and toxicology, which are then used to discuss qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, and environmental assessments of product design. It discusses how business and government can work towards sustainability, focusing on managerial and legal tools, before considering ethics and how decisions on environmental management can be made. Students will learn quantitative methods while also gaining an understanding of qualitative, legal, and ethical aspects of sustainability. Practical applications are included throughout, and there are study questions at the end of each chapter. PowerPoint slides and jpegs of all the figures in the book are provided online. This is the perfect textbook on environmental studies for engineering and applied science students.
This first systematic treatment of the concept and practice of scaffold hopping shows the tricks of the trade and provides invaluable guidance for the reader's own projects. The first section serves as an introduction to the topic by describing the concept of scaffolds, their discovery, diversity and representation, and their importance for finding new chemical entities. The following part describes the most common tools and methods for scaffold hopping, whether topological, shape-based or structure-based. Methods such as CATS, Feature Trees, Feature Point Pharmacophores (FEPOPS), and SkelGen are discussed among many others. The final part contains three fully documented real-world examples of successful drug development projects by scaffold hopping that illustrate the benefits of the approach for medicinal chemistry. While most of the case studies are taken from medicinal chemistry, chemical and structural biologists will also benefit greatly from the insights presented here.
The book is structured into 2 parts: Part 1: Overview of microscopy techniques and software used for microstructural analyses Different types of the following techniques are discussed in detail: light microscopy (including bright field, polarised and confocal scanning laser microscopy) and electron microscopy (mainly scanning and transmission electron microscopy). The description of these techniques also includes the staining procedures and sample preparation methods developed. Emerging microscopy techniques are also covered, reflecting the latest advances in this field. Part 2: Microstructure of various dairy foods This part is divided into sections related to the microstructure of milk, cheeses, yoghurts, powders and fat products. In addition, there is a review of the localisation of microorganism within the microstructure of various dairy products.
The first professional reference on this highly relevant topic, for drug developers, pharmacologists and toxicologists. The authors provide more than a systematic overview of computational tools and knowledge bases for drug metabolism research and their underlying principles. They aim to convey their expert knowledge distilled from many years of experience in the field. In addition to the fundamentals, computational approaches and their applications, this volume provides expert accounts of the latest experimental methods for investigating drug metabolism in four dedicated chapters. The authors discuss the most important caveats and common errors to consider when working with experimental data. Collating the knowledge gained over the past decade, this practice-oriented guide presents methods not only used in drug development, but also in the development and toxicological assessment of cosmetics, functional foods, agrochemicals, and additives for consumer goods, making it an invaluable reference in a variety of disciplines.
The only book to not only discuss the technicalities of the European REACH chemicals registration process, but also to directly address the resulting business risks and business solutions.
In this text for practitioners, the author pulls together the key knowledge needed to successfully run a business under REACH, distilling thousands of pages of official documentation, and incorporating experiences from different-sized enterprises in a global context.
Starting with the basics of the REACH framework, she explains the entire process on how to register with the European ECHA office with a particular emphasis on small and medium-sized businesses. Along the way, she describes key milestones and presents sample documents from real case studies. The final part of the book addresses strategies to ensure a reach-compliant operation, including recommendations for in-house processes as well as communicating with suppliers and downstream users.
As a result, managers in the pharmaceuticals and chemicals industries will learn how to operate their companies in full compliance with REACH standards.
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