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By the early twentieth century, it became common to describe the United States as a "business civilization." President Coolidge in 1925 said, "The chief business of the American people is business." More recently, historian Sven Beckert characterized Henry Ford's massive manufactory as the embodiment of America: "While Athens had its Parthenon and Rome its Colosseum, the United States had its River Rouge Factory in Detroit..." How did business come to assume such power and cultural centrality in America? This volume explores the variety of business enterprise in the United States and analyzes its presence in the country's economy, its evolution over time, and its meaning in society. It introduces readers to formative business leaders (including Elbert Gary, Harlow Curtice, and Mary Kay Ash), leading firms (Mellon Bank, National Cash Register, Xerox), and fiction about business people (The Octopus, Babbitt, The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit). It also discusses Alfred Chandler, Joseph Schumpeter, Mira Wilkins, and others who made significant contributions to understanding of America's business history. This VSI pursues its three central themes - the evolution, scale, and culture of American business - in a chronological framework stretching from the American Revolution to today. The first theme is evolution: How has U.S. business evolved over time? How have American companies competed with one another and with foreign firms? Why have ideas about strategy and management changed? Why did business people in the mid-twentieth century celebrate an "organizational" culture promising long-term employment in the same company, while a few decades later entrepreneurship was prized? Second is scale: Why did business assume such enormous scale in the United States? Was the rise of gigantic corporations due to the industriousness of its population, or natural resources, or government policies? And third, culture: What are the characteristics of a "business civilization"? How have opinions on the meaning of business changed? In the late nineteenth century, Andrew Carnegie believed that America's numerous enterprises represented an exuberant "triumph of democracy." After World War II, however, sociologist William H. Whyte saw business culture as stultifying, and historian Richard Hofstadter wrote, "Once great men created fortunes; today a great system creates fortunate men." How did changes in the nature of business affect popular views? Walter A. Friedman provides the long view of these important developments.
This book is the first anthology compiled in English by the CEIBS Case Center to promote China-focused cases worldwide. Included are ten of twenty six award-winning cases from the Global Contest for the Best China-Focused Cases during 2015 to 2017: these works exemplify the quality of effective business cases and share stories of China to the world. Each of the ten cases has a defining feature. Some cases, with a focus on user demand, analyze how companies build their core competence (e.g., Haidilao Hot-Pot and OnePlus Mobile Phone), while others present an array of business innovations in the era of new retail, e-commerce, and the sharing economy (e.g., SF Express, Jinhuobao, ofo, FamilyMart, and Handu Apparel). Some describe Chinese companies' operations in the overseas market (e.g., Huawei and TECNO), and others depict how foreign companies adapt to the Chinese market in a unique way (e.g., Starbucks). These cases were drawn from Chinese and overseas business schools. The book helps bridge the gap between the world management community's interest in China and the limited availability of China-focused management cases. We hope this collection of select cases will prove valuable and informative for our readers.
The increasing economic and political importance of East Asia in the global political economy requires a deeper analysis of the nature of the capitalist systems in this region than has been provided by the existing literature on comparative capitalisms. This volume brings together conceptual and empirical analyses of the evolving patterns of East Asian capitalism against the backdrop of regional and global market integration and periodic economic crises since the 1980s. Focusing on China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand, it provides an interdisciplinary account of variations, continuities, and changes in the institutional structures that govern financial systems, industrial relations, and product markets, and that shape the evolution of national political economies. While the volume encompasses a range of different cases, specific issues, and diverse methodologies, all the chapters address two dominant themes - the continuities and changes in the institutional underpinnings of capitalist development and the main driving forces behind them. The book thus provides an integrated analysis of how changing institutional practices in business, financial, and labour systems interact and affect the evolution of capitalist political economies in the region.
Your Passport to International Business Etiquette
The most authoritative and comprehensive text of its kind, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" is your must-have guide to proper international business protocol. With countries such as China and India taking on a more significant role in the global business landscape, you can't afford not to know the practices, customs, and philosophies of other countries.
Now fully revised, updated, and expanded with over sixty country profiles, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" provides invaluable information on how to handle common business interactions with grace, respect, and an appreciation for different cultures.
This book offers an insight into the complications higher education is currently facing in the Arab world. It discusses whether governance in international higher education is of particular importance in Arab countries when considering their difference in political systems, cultures, interests, concerns and numerous conflicts. Arab society needs more than ever to strengthen its higher education governance in order to meet current challenges and demands. Higher Education Governance in the Arab World includes insights from the real world and is written by international professionals with the aim of providing a spark of hope for a better future with a clearer understanding on how to move forward.
The biography of Carlos Slim, one of the richest people of all time, is not just the tale of the first man from a developing country to ever reach the top of the Forbes list of billionaires. It is the story of a character who represents the neoliberal mentality of our times, who mistrusts politicians, believes that the market is the most efficient mechanism for everything (even to combat corruption), and sees philanthropy as a social investment with businesses as the exclusive form of collective wealth. In this new book, produced through years of thorough investigation, Osorno examines this symbol of twenty-first-century capitalism and of Mexico. Similar surreal dimensions lead Osorno to openly ask whether a man as rich as him can also be a good person.
In Cross-Cultural Management, the author takes a critical, power-sensitive and culturally-aware perspective that moves beyond the paradigms debate, placing greater emphasis on the holistic nature of culture and its managerial consequences and taking into account the diversity and multiple identities apparent in cross-cultural management. Conceived by Chris Grey as an antidote to conventional textbooks, each book in the 'Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap' series takes a core area of the curriculum and turns it on its head by providing a critical and sophisticated overview of the key issues and debates in an informal, conversational and often humorous way. Suitable for students of cross-cultural management, human resource management or workplace diversity and professionals working in organizations and intercultural training. Need another "VSFI" book? Browse the series here
This book is a comprehensive, expert guide to doing business in China Western technology, management expertise and capital have fueled an incredible expansion of China's economy. Trade with China is at an all-time high, and so are the numbers of Westerners traveling to China for business. Business from China has also picked up as Chinese firms look to expand abroad. Understanding the ins and outs of the confusing and often contradictory Chinese business culture can lend an enormous advantage. The Chinese Way in Business is an invaluable tool that teaches Westerners the basic Chinese philosophy of doing business and how to cultivate strong personal relationships with Chinese business people and Chinese nationals. The author, Boye Lafayette De Mente worked in Asia for over thirty years as a journalist and business consultant and has long been considered an authority on East Asian business. In this book, he reveals the historical factors, collective traits and individual qualities that determine how the Chinese do business today, and the direction their economy will take in the future. His is a true insider's view-whether the topic is the legal framework for business development, or the importance of social relationships to successful business dealings in China. The book is broken into ten key parts: Introduction: The Land and the People-includes an overview of Chinese ethnicity and the languages of China Part One:Return of the Central Kingdom-an extensive overview of recent events and new technologies in China Part Two: The Historical Perspective-Chinese philosophy and the Chinese mindset from antiquity to modern times Part Three: Doing Business in China-A detailed analysis of the nuts and bolts of Chinese Business Part Four: Key Concepts in Chinese Business-Concepts native to China such as Guanxi (relationships) that drive Chinese business practice Part Five: Additional Business Vocabulary Part Six: Glossary of Useful Terms-designed for quick referencing Part Seven: Internet Gateways to China-An overview of the dynamic online world in China Part Eight: Miscellaneous Information-contains information about English Language Publications and Weather Patterns Part Nine: Learning Some New Skills-Classical Chinese techniques which might benefit Western business people
Expanding an organisation internationally presents both opportunities and challenges as marketing departments seek to understand different buying behaviours, power relations, preferences, loyalties and norms. International Marketing offers a uniquely adaptable strategy framework for firms of all sizes that are looking to internationalise their business, using Carl Arthur Solberg's tried and tested Nine Strategic Windows model. Compact and readable, this practical text offers the reader insights into: The globalisation phenomenon Partner relations And Strategic positioning in international markets. Solberg has also created a brand new companion website for the text, replete with additional materials and instructor resources. This functional study, complete with case studies that demonstrate how the theory translates to practice, is an ideal introduction to international marketing for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in business and management. It also offers a pragmatic toolkit for managers and marketers that are seeking to expand their business into new territories.
The new third edition provides readers with the fundamental theories and concepts for understanding how business is done in Europe, linking it to the current European business environment through a range of up-to-date case studies and examples. Revised and updated to include recent changes in the economic and political climate of Europe, and thematic perspectives on key contemporary European challenges, the authors also bring into consideration non-EU Business in the EU as well as the way Brexit is likely to affect businesses. Also new to this edition: Examples and cases from a wider range of European member states, including Tesla, Airbnb, Ryanair, Belgian AB InBev's acquisition of British SABMiller, and the expansion of Alibaba Group in Europe. Enhanced material on business in EFTA and CEFTA areas. Analysis of the effects digitalisation, business analytics and Artificial Intelligence have on business in Europe. Coverage of the challenges and opportunities stemming from migration and the refugee crisis. A specific focus on the gig and shared economy. An investigation into how sustainability and climate change agreements impact on business. The book is supported by online resources for lecturers and students, including an instructor's manual, PowerPoint Slides, multiple choice questions, class-based role play instruction guides, chapter summaries, and links to relevant videos and podcasts. Suitable reading for students on European business modules at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Coming to Singapore is often a dream come true for many executives and their families. This is your chance to step onto the world stage and take your family along for the ride of a lifetime. Everything points to success. However, up to 50 per cent of international leadership assignments end in failure. So what's the solution? In Foreigner in Charge Singapore, leading international business coach Padraig O'Sullivan takes a comprehensive and insightful look at what it takes to succeed in your new assignment. Central to the book is the PALDER framework, a proven, integrated approach mapping out the transition phases an expatriate leader will undergo in their first twelve to twenty-four months. It illustrates the waves of change you, your family and the organisation will go through and gives you the necessary navigation tools. This book also guides you through: mental and professional preparations before you leave your home country what to expect upon arrival in Singapore how to help your family smoothly transition to life in a new country the unique characteristics and challenges of leading in Singapore Complemented by online worksheets and support, Foreigner in Charge delivers everything you need to transition successfully and get the most out of your Singapore leadership experience.
Business Ethics in the Middle East fills a crucial gap in the Middle East educational landscape. Written in an easy and accessible format, this book covers the foundations of business ethics by drawing from both Eastern and Western traditions. The chapters include many examples, case studies, activities, and illustrations that are customized to the Middle Eastern market, yet relevant to readers outside of the Middle East who want thorough insights about business behaviour in the region. A special module introduces the Arab Middle Eastern context that non-Arab readers will find valuable. The author addresses topics related to organizational culture, leadership, CSR, corporate governance, marketing, HR, accounting, finance, and production. This is accomplished with a deep attention to the cultural and contextual elements of the Middle East. Special attention is given to religious business ethics, while still deeply engaging the vast heritage of Western ethical systems. This combination is essential for the development of a comprehensive approach to the topic of business ethics. This textbook will be essential reading for students of business ethics in the Middle East and will also be valuable for students and researchers across business ethics, Islamic Studies, religion, and philosophy.
From the mid-1980s to the turn of the 1990s the international HR field was considered to be in its infancy. There continues to be both an evolution of territory covered by the field - a series of successively evolving cultural, geographical and institutional challenges faced by the multinational corporation (MNC) - as well as more critical questioning whether this has created an expanded or a fragmented field. This book brings together the latest research on important "issues-driven" concerns that the field of IHRM now has to face, absorb, interpret then reanalyse through international lenses. This volume gives attention to those aspects of MNC behaviour - choices about location, how they organize local subsidiaries, choices made about technology, capital and labour, and choices made about investments and strategies - that are subject to institutional influences. It also gives voice to a number of contemporary issues - reverse knowledge flows, skill supply strategies, employer branding, e-enablement, outsourcing, global networks - that now need to be accommodated within the field. * Broadens the IHRM field to cover comparative and institutional perspectives * Provides a multi-level analysis of globalization phenomena at the individual, organization, and macro level * Focuses on the current problems and issues driving the attention of IHRM Directors
Over the past four decades the wealthiest OECD economies-in Europe, North America, and Australasia- have faced massive structural change. Industrial sectors, which were once considered the economic backbone of these societies, have shrunk inexorably in terms of size and economic significance, while service sectors have taken over as the primary engines of output and employment expansion. The impact on labor markets has been profound: in many OECD countries more than three-quarters of employment is now in services, while industrial sectors, on average, account for less than one-fifth. This sectoral shift in the locus of economic activity has potentially radical implications for politics and society. However, these implications are only beginning to be understood. This path-breaking book is a systematic attempt to understand the distinct political economy of service societies. It examines how different types of socio-economic regimes manage the service transition, with a central focus on job creation and destruction and the changing characteristics of labor markets, and shows that the economic, distributional, and political outcomes with which it is associated vary across countries depending on their political-institutional structures.
Many thought China's rise would fundamentally remake the global order. Yet, much like other developing nations, the Chinese state now finds itself in a status quo characterized by free trade and American domination. Through a cutting-edge historical, sociological, and political analysis, Ho-fung Hung details the competing interests and economic realities that temper the dream of Chinese supremacy-forces that are stymieing growth throughout the global South. Hung focuses on four common misconceptions: that China could undermine orthodoxy by offering an alternative model of growth; that China is radically altering power relations between the East and the West; that China is capable of diminishing the global power of the United States; and that the Chinese economy would restore the world's wealth after the 2008 financial crisis. His work reveals how much China depends on the existing order and how the interests of the Chinese elites maintain these ties. Through its perpetuation of the dollar standard and its addiction to U.S. Treasury bonds, China remains bound to the terms of its own prosperity, and its economic practices of exploiting debt bubbles are destined to fail. Hung ultimately warns of a postmiracle China that will grow increasingly assertive in attitude while remaining constrained in capability.
Since the global financial crisis of 2008/09, international cooperation has failed to curb volatile financial markets. Changes in the global rules of finance discussed in the G20 during the last decade remain limited, and it is uncertain whether they are suitable to help mitigate and manage future crises to come. This book offers an alternative to the popular notion that this failure is the result of the 'nature' of the international system, the clash of national egoisms, or lack of leadership. It instead investigates problems of international cooperation by looking at their deeper structural origins in the competition of different models of capitalism. US finance-led, EU integration-led, and East Asian state-led capitalism complement each other globally but have conflicting preferences on how to regulate international finance. This interdependence of capitalist models is relatively stable but also prone to crises caused by volatile financial flows, global economic imbalances, and 'currency wars'. By bringing together approaches from International Political Economy and Comparative Capitalism, this book shows that regulating international finance is not a technocratic exercise of fine-tuning the machinery of international institutions, but rather a political process. International cooperation can only be successful if it goes hand in hand with deep domestic changes in each of these capitalist models.
The book is a contribution to the emerging literature on firm strategy in developing countries, offering new empirical evidence of the multi-faceted and complex nature of cross border inter-firm linkages.
The ACADEMY OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (UK and Ireland Chapter) Published in association with the UK and Ireland Chapter of the Academy of International Business. In line with the 45th AIB-UKI conference, this edited collection brings together fresh perspectives on international business strategy, with a focus on the challenges faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs) in today's changing commercial and political landscape. With a diverse range of contributors from varying international backgrounds, this book discusses the different strategies employed by MNEs, and analyses how they cope with the current global business environment. An extremely useful read for those studying globalisation and MNEs, this book provides an interdisciplinary and timely approach to international business strategy.
"Cuts through the cacophony of information, misinformation, and nonsense on China that circulates in our modern world to give us reliable answers to crucial questions... Should be on the shelf of anyone seeking to understand this fast-rising superpower." -Ian Johnson, author of The Souls of China After years of isolation, China is now center stage as an economic and global power, but its rise has triggered wildly divergent views. Is it a model of business efficiency or a threat to American prosperity and security? Thirty-six of the world's leading China experts from Harvard University's renowned Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies answer key questions about this new superpower, distilling a lifetime of scholarship into short and accessible essays about Chinese politics, culture, history, economy, approach to the environment, and foreign policy. Their contributions provide essential insight into the challenges China faces, the aspirations of its people and leaders, its business climate, and the consequences of its meteoric ascent. Many books offer information about China, but few make sense of what is truly at stake. "Impressive... A highly informative, readable collection for scholars and nonscholars alike." -Publishers Weekly "Provides a more nuanced and accessible perspective on the issues China is facing." -South China Morning Post "Erudite yet accessible... The topical reach is impressive." -Jeffrey Wasserstrom, author of China in the 21st Century
Despite the vast wealth generated in the last half century, in today's world inequality is worsening and poverty is becoming increasingly chronic. Hundreds of millions of people continue to live on less than $2 per day and lack basic human necessities such as nutritious food, shelter, clean water, primary health care, and education. Innovating for the Global South offers fresh solutions for reducing poverty in the developing world. Highlighting the multidisciplinary expertise of the University of Toronto's Global Innovation Group, leading experts from the fields of engineering, medicine, management, and global public policy examine the causes and consequences of endemic poverty and the challenges of mitigating its effects from the perspective of the world's poorest of the poor. Can we imagine ways to generate solar energy to run essential medical equipment in the countryside? Can we adapt information and communication technologies to provide up-to-the-minute agricultural market prices for remote farming villages? How do we create more inclusive innovation processes to hear the voices of those living in urban slums? Is it possible to reinvent a low-cost toilet that operates beyond the water and electricity grids? Motivated by the imperatives of developing, delivering, and harnessing innovation in the developing world, Innovating for the Global South is essential reading for managers, practitioners, and scholars of development, business, and policy.
Private Enterprise-Led Development in Sub-Saharan Africa provides a novel theoretical and conceptual model to guide research into Africa's economic development. It endorses the view that private enterprise-led growth will help reduce poverty since it strengthens individuals' capacity to care for themselves and their families.
Increasing disruption, diminishing returns, and demanding customers require business leaders to create more value, remain relevant, and stay ahead of competition. CEOs must evolve a "value creation" culture for the company in order to properly balance the interests of customers, employees, investors, and the marketplace. People who succeed, succeed because they create value, but they do so unconsciously. Creating value consciously makes you create more value and destroy less value. Doing something good or improving the well-being of someone creates value. You buy and re-buy a product on a value basis. Value dominant logic is relevant to all of us. Value creation is used in all fields, but is not well understood. This book takes value creation to the next level, showing how value is basic to human endeavor and is not focused on enough even when we try to create value. Most books on value creation focus on creating monetary value for companies. This book suggests that value is greatly created and enhanced by creating value for others. To create value for customers, one must first create value for the providers, including employees, suppliers, and the society at large. The goal is to improve the quality of life and well-being. This book provides ways of implementing these thoughts and educates readers about value and how to create it.
India's over 200 million Dalits, once called "untouchables," have been mobilized by social movements and political parties, but the outcomes of this mobilization are puzzling. Dalits' ethnic parties have performed poorly in elections in states where movements demanding social equality have been strong while they have succeeded in states where such movements have been entirely absent or weak. In Mobilizing the Marginalized, Amit Ahuja demonstrates that the collective action of marginalized groups-those that are historically stigmatized and disproportionately poor - is distinct. Drawing on extensive original research conducted across four of India's largest states, he shows, for the marginalized, social mobilization undermines the bloc voting their ethnic parties' rely on for electoral triumph and increases multi-ethnic political parties' competition for marginalized votes. He presents evidence showing that a marginalized group gains more from participating in a social movement and dividing support among parties than from voting as a bloc for an ethnic party.
Emerging market multinationals are becoming leaders in their industries, able to compete on equal terms with firms from advanced economies, but their paths toward global leadership are not always smooth. This book examines the specific challenges faced by emerging market multinationals as they seek to develop their international operations and proposes actionable solutions for them. The authors seamlessly combine academic analyses with a rich selection of real-world cases to provide a clear framework for understanding some of the barriers that prevent firms from emerging economies from succeeding abroad and show readers what actions can be taken to achieve sustained international growth. With clear, concise arguments and examples that bring the discussion to life, this insightful book will appeal to managers and students alike.
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