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Pioneers in Marketing presents a collection of eight biographical essays about seminal marketing scholars of the twentieth century, focusing on the careers and contributions of those who contributed most to the development of the marketing discipline. Five of the eight biographies rely extensively on archival materials which allow for a much more detailed examination of the subject's life and career than earlier published sketches, and two of the biographies in this collection are drawn from from extensive interviews with the subject. The careers of most of the scholars included in this volume were centered on the first half of the twentieth century, during which time marketing emerged as a university discipline. Introduced with a chapter that discusses biography as a form of historical writing in marketing, author Ian Dennis offers a rationale for biography as an approach to studying marketing history, outlines methodology for doing biographical research, and explores sources of biographical material. The final chapter delves into common themes of the biographies, lessons that can be learned from this collection, and offers suggestions for further biographical research.
With the accelerating integration of China into the global economy, there is a thirst to understand how Chinese managers like to lead and how Chinese employees like to be managed. There is no doubt that China can be a difficult and risky market for foreign businesses. The authors show managers how to succeed when doing business in China.
MNEs have been involved in Thai manufacturing since the early 1960s but despite this significant involvement their role in the industrialization process remains a controversial issue. This book has three main foci: * to evaluate the impact of MNE involvement in Thai manufacturing * to gain insight into the principal mechanisms by which MNEs contribute to the industrialization process and obstacles that prevent them from functioning more effectively * to recommend policies for maximising the benefits from MNE involvement. The key hypothesis proposed by the author is that gains from MNE involvement are conditioned by the policy environment of the host country. The scope of MNE involvement studies uniquely covers not only FDI but also non-FDI. The study also draws together valuable conclusions and outlines policy lessons for other developing countries. Multinational Enterprises and Industrial Transformation will appeal to post-graduate and advanced undergraduate students in subject areas of international economics, industrial organization, economic growth, development economics and Asian economic development. Professional economists, policy makers and researchers working on industrial organization, international capital mobility and economic growth issues in developing countries will also find much to engage them within the book.
The authors of this unique volume provide a timely and valuable perspective on how technology and the Internet revolution are changing business and spurring development across the world, especially in emerging countries. Utilizing a framework grounded in rigorous theory, they provide a fine-grained understanding of electronic commerce adoption processes by public and private sector entities in developing countries. In so doing, they consider how each exchange encounter is shaped by, and in turn shapes, relational characteristics that form the basis for growth and development. Using a resource-based view of economies, the authors hypothesize that differences in the adoption of electronic commerce technologies in developing economies can be attributed to a sense-and-respond capability of governments with respect to new technologies, which they term `technological opportunism'. One of their main objectives is to establish the distinctiveness of technology opportunities from related constructs, such as innovativeness, and show that it offers a significantly better explanation of technology adoption and diffusion than do existing constructs. The book examines a number of developing countries' experiences with electronic government, bringing real life experience to the adoption of an e-government model by looking at the issue from strategic as well as operational perspectives. The volume's ground-breaking research and conclusions will be of great interest to professionals, researchers and students in the areas of e-commerce and economic development; government officials of developing and newly industrialized countries contemplating e-government initiatives; and information technology managers.
This book expands the business network view on managerial issues in multinational corporations. Specifically, it scrutinises the importance of a subsidiary's external and internal business network for its strategic and organizational role within the corporation. The internationalisation of firms in terms of management issues and headquarters control, the influence of subsidiaries on decisions and learning processes within multinational corporations are examined in detail. It is argued that to understand these issues, it is necessary to analyse the context of the multinational corporation in terms of the subsidiaries' external and internal business networks. The authors also explore the extent to which subsidiaries are embedded in close relationships with other business partners and the ability of headquarters to retain control if their subsidiaries are given the opportunity to influence decisions concerning strategic investments. The theoretical elements of the book are underpinned by illustrative cases from an extensive database of 20 multinational corporations. Grounding its analyses and conclusions on unique and extensive data on specific business relationships at the subsidiary level in multinational corporations, this book will be invaluable to students, researchers and lecturers focusing on management and international business.
Combining case studies with accessible but rigorous production models and historical background, this provocative book challenges accepted views on Japanese production methods in the world car industry. The book argues that the `lean and flexible' production model popularly associated with Toyota MC is a myth, but one which sheds light on cultural responses to the attendant stresses of globalization. To illustrate this, Dan Coffey provides individual studies of process flexibility, labour productivity and the re-organization of work in the global car industry. Wider evaluations of Japanese impacts on the global economy and a resurgent Western capitalism are then made, progressing the case for a fundamental re-assessment of the narratives informing popular accounts of Japan's manufacturing success. Beginning with the fictionalization of history and propagation of empirical counterfactuals and finishing with observations on the wider impact of the `lean and flexible' approach, the bold and controversial conclusion reacheld by the author is that what is at stake is our understanding of the form and meaning of `production fantasy'. The Myth of Japanese Efficiency casts a familiar debate in an unfamiliar light. It will strongly appeal to management and business strategy academics, political economists and industrial sociologists interested in the debate on Fordist versus `post-Fordist' production methods/`lean and flexible' manufacture and Japanese post-war success in the world market for manufactured goods. Human resource management specialists interested in best production practice will also find much to interest them within this book.
This book explores the relationship between exports and productivity. Whilst a body of research indicates that exporters have superior productivity to non-exporters, received wisdom suggests that this is because productive firms became exporters. Robert Salomon approaches this issue from a different angle. He argues that exporters can access diverse knowledge inputs that are not available in the domestic market, and that this knowledge can spill back to the focal firm and, through learning, can foster increased innovation. Therefore, exporting can also make firms more productive. This book examines how exporters derive such advantages by analyzing the relationship between exporting strategies and innovation, with empirical evidence from a representative sample of manufacturing firms. In contrast to existing findings, this book presents evidence consistent with learning by exporting - albeit in dimensions not previously examined in the literature. Furthermore, the results suggest that exporting strategies influence innovative productivity in complex ways, with important implications for research in international business, strategy, and innovation. Questioning whether firms actually learn from exporting experiences and how they do so, this unique study will prove a fascinating read for academics, researchers, and government and economic policy makers with an interest in business and management, international business, and of course, exporting.
The crucial actors of a global knowledge-based economy are multinational enterprises (MNE). At the same time, the competences in the country and even in the region where the headquarters are located still play a crucial role for the localisation of R&D. MNEs depend on the embeddedness in an institutional framework, since their competitive advantage in the world-wide competition depends crucially on the cross-border utilisation of regional and national capabilities. Complementary to transnational networks, the innovativeness of a company is therefore based also on regional innovation systems. Multinational Enterprises and Innovation contributes to a better understanding of the interconnectedness between organisational and regional learning. On the basis of case studies in Germany and France, we investigate how MNEs cope with technical, economic and institutional uncertainties by drawing upon the complementary strengths of organisational and regional networks in national and European contexts. Thus, the book links two theoretical debates which are currently still largely unconnected -- the debate on learning processes in MNEs and the debate on the regional bases of innovativeness and competitiveness. In this way, we try to answer the question how the observed internationalisation of R&D is reconciled with the crucial role of domestic locations and regional competences.
New ventures have played a significant role in the world's economic and social development. In particular, the development of high technology ventures has been viewed as both a revitalization tool for developed market economies, such as the USA, and a driving force for economic transformation in transition economies, such as China. With a focus on new technology ventures in China's emerging market, this volume brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines and countries to provide a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. New technology ventures are highly vulnerable to environmental selection because they lack adequate knowledge of their environments, new product experience, and managerial and financial resources. Thus, these ventures tend to have high failure rates. Not surprisingly, a major stream of research in strategic management and entrepreneurship literature has focused on identifying the strategies that new technology ventures use to offset their liability of newness in order to improve their performance. However, previous studies have been done in the context of developed markets. This volume explores how new ventures successfully grow in China's transition economy where strategic factor markets and institutional frameworks have not been developed in this context. Significant issues addressed in this volume include: * Factors contributing to the growth of technology entrepreneurship in China * Ownership and survival of technology ventures in China * Challenges faced by venture capitalists in China * Growth strategies and environment-strategy interaction in Chinese technology ventures * Organizational control and reward and technology innovation in Chinese technology ventures * Political risks of foreign ventures in China's emerging market * R&D globalization and internationalization strategy of Chinese technology ventures. The contributors' conclusions will be highly valuable to managers of new technology ventures and to Western firms attempting to enter the high technology industries in China. Researchers interested in new technology ventures and innovation will also find this volume a useful addition to their libraries.
Market-defining since it was introduced, International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace by Charles W. L. Hill, sets the standard, and is the proven choice for International Business. Hill draws upon his experience to deliver a complete solution, and has partnered with G. Tomas M. Hult from Michigan State University to continue to deliver a program that is:Integrated-Integrated Progression of Topics with Results-Driven TechnologyPractical-Focused on Practical Applications of ConceptsRelevant-Timely, Comprehensive Coverage of Theory
This book's starting point is that after two decades of experiments, during which other transition economies have effectively privatised all of their former state enterprises, China is still endeavouring to find a way to reinvent and re-engineer its own state-owned economic establishments. The authors explore these reforms along with the problems of China's state-owned banks, which have long been troubled by the adverse loans of Chinese enterprises and face foreign competition in 2007 under China's WTO commitments. Drawing on wide-ranging case studies of enterprise reform, Becky Chiu and Mervyn Lewis combine their extensive experience to give an authoritative account of China's enterprise and bank reform agenda, involving property rights, improved corporate governance and stimulating enterprise. This book will be of great interest to business economists, academic economists and those following the development of the Chinese economy.
Corporate Strategies under International Terrorism and Adversity raises key issues facing international business and management in an era of global uncertainty. Gabriele Suder's second edited book about the security-business nexus analyses and evaluates the main strategic and operational responses to global commerce and management. The contributors explore the complexities and linkages of firms, industries, organizational structures, international relations, markets and terrorism networks. They investigate these networks and offer insight into the strategic behavior of international firms. The authors likewise examine corporate management and performance issues that encompass internationalization and location decisions, global supply chain management and brand portfolio challenges. The book concludes by outlining future challenges and with a discussion of the crucial issues that remain open and that will be shaped by the geopolitical context and the way business adapts its corporate strategies. Designed to offer key tools for risk assessment and management in this field, this important book will be invaluable to risk strategists, CEOs of international firms, credit risk analysts and academics with an interest in international business and/or risk management.
Regulating Development examines the impact that regulation - good or bad - can have on the development of poorer societies. It opens with a succinct review of critical issues, including the implications of the spread of intellectual property rights legislation and the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The volume examines the regulatory experiences of three important developing economies: Brazil, Ghana and South Africa. Key regulatory themes are analysed, most notably capital markets and corporate governance regulation, the regulation of the telecommunications sector and the use of regulatory reforms to promote the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Within each chapter policy lessons are drawn, the relevance of which extend well beyond national or even regional boundaries. The principal aim of the book is to show the extent to which regulation is moving increasingly to centre stage as a driver of development in Africa and Latin America. The book also demonstrates how thoughtful, well-planned regulation can make a real contribution to the emergence of supply-side competitiveness. This book will be invaluable reading for academics, researchers and students with an interest in economics and development studies, as well as for regulators and policymakers in developing countries.
Mini-set E: Sociology & Anthropology re-issues 10 volumes originally published between 1931 and 1995 and covers topics such as japanese whaling, marriage in japan, and the japanese health care system. For institutional purchases for e-book sets please contact [email protected] (customers in the UK, Europe and Rest of World)
Global Supply Chain Management brings together in two authoritative volumes the best and most interesting academic work on global supply chain management from international business and international management, marketing, strategic management, operations management, purchasing and supply management, and economics. It includes the various theories, levels of analysis, concepts, and empirical trends that have come to shape our understanding of this recently emerged area of research. The questions it answers include `In what way do buyer-supplier relations differ across countries', `What are the consequences of offshore sourcing for firms, industries, and countries', `How should firms manage cultural differences between themselves and their suppliers', and `How can firms use global SCM to improve their performance'. This book will be an invaluable resource to any academic researcher or student with an interest in global SCM, but is also accessible enough and useful for practitioners who deal with this topic at a strategic or tactical level.
In recent years the field of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models has emerged as the central field of macroeconomics. These models give a unified treatment of growth and fluctuations in a general equilibrium framework where all agents behave rationally. A particularly successful part of this field introduces imperfect competition and nonclearing markets into this framework, which also leads to the study of problems like unemployment. This timely volume gives a full account of the field, starting with the various general equilibrium traditions that ultimately led to this research area, and then describing the evolution of the models, with special emphasis on how they succeeded in representing features of dynamics that other models failed to reproduce. This collection will be an invaluable source of reference for professors and graduate students specializing in macroeconomics. It should also be of interest to students of the history of economic thought, as it shows how apparently antagonistic subfields ended up merging to produce a better synthetic theory.
Finding ways to alleviate global poverty poses a major challenge for political leaders and intellectuals worldwide. The contributors to this volume, top scholars of international business, examine the effects of globalization on the developing world and address ways in which multinational corporations (MNCs) can play a positive role in the fight against poverty. The essays illustrate how, by creating new business models, multinational enterprises are best equipped to relieve global poverty. By making investments among the poor - in pursuit of profit and shareholder wealth rather than as charity - the economic activity generated by investments would go a long way towards reducing poverty. The contributors show how following this strategy would lead to today's poor becoming part of the economy and emerging as visible customers for MNCs. They address the many facets of this plan in chapters on: MNCs and host environment and policies, strategies and their impact, governments and civil society, international business models, and global institutions and social responsibility. This unique solution to poverty reduction will be of great interest to scholars of international relations and business, international corporate managers and executives, government officials, and NGO executives dealing with global matters.
This book tackles the issue of technological and economic catch-up by examining the role that public research institutions and local policy play in the promotion of this process by fostering local science-technology linkages with incoming foreign-owned multinationals. Although the book comprises various techno-socio-economic contexts and different methodological perspectives, the authors share the idea that public research, educational and political institutions provide capabilities in basic research and training of highly skilled labour, while private corporations establish networking connections with scientific and professional communities (and therefore access to knowledge and contacts) in other parts of the world. The book argues that despite being a peculiar feature of the new innovation model of the knowledge-based economy, the close relationship between knowledge transfer, innovation and economic growth has historically been an important mechanism in stimulating economic take-off and growth. This collection of theoretical, historical and applied papers will be invaluable to students, researchers and academics with an interest in innovation issues.
The application of real options theory to the decision making of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is an exciting new area of research within the field of international business. Such contributions will make existing theories in international business (such as internalization theory) dynamic and more realistic. This important collection presents 20 of the most significant articles that apply real options theory to international business and strategic management. The volume organizes the recent literature so that further advances can be made by international business scholars to capitalize on the power and usefulness of the real options approach. Part I includes articles that help to clarify the definitions of real options and the boundaries of applying real options theory to analyze the decision making of firms. Part II consists of applications to operational flexibility of the multinational network. Part III comprises applications to market entry modes among which joint ventures are most widely studied. Part IV refers to applications to market entry timing. Part V includes several applications to strategic management.
The changing social expectations of corporations within a globalised economic environment are challenging our traditional conception of the proper commercial function. This text delimits their emergent roles and responsibilities under international law. International Documents on Corporate Responsibility includes the principal international, regional and national instruments drafted by intergovernmental organisations or states as well as codes of conduct formulated by industry associations, trade unions and non-governmental organisations. The coverage includes the fields of human rights, international criminal and environmental law, labour standards, international trade, armed conflict, sustainable development, corruption, consumer protection and corporate governance. Each document is accompanied by a brief explanatory commentary outlining the historical origins of the instrument, the principal actors involved, controversial negotiation issues, applicable implementation procedure, and identifies further reference material. This comprehensive compilation of materials dating from the 1970s to the present day in one single readily-accessible and fully-indexed volume will be of interest to students and researchers of corporate responsibility, as well as corporate executives, government officials, legal practitioners, tertiary institutions, business associations, trade unions and NGO activists.
Characterized by new analytical insights and methods in the field of international business, this collection of articles by Alan Rugman and Alain Verbeke celebrates their long and productive work together on issues facing top managers of multinational enterprises. Fueled by their belief in the need for better theory in multinational strategic management, the authors have explored a number of different facets in this increasingly important realm. They have organized the work into five sections: the foundations of a new theory of multinational strategic management, a radically new examination of multinational strategic management, national competitiveness, the relatively under-researched but increasingly important issue of environmental strategies of multinational enterprises, and the interactions between multinational strategic management and public policy. This outstanding collection, inspired by the occasion of Alan Rugman's 60th birthday, will be of great interest to scholars and practitioners of international business and management, as well as to economists and lawyers.
In this, his final book, Gavin Boyd has brought together a distinguished group of experts on the nature and extent of transatlantic policy coordination and its implication for corporate strategy. This remarkably relevant set of papers offers a discussion on the economic and financial linkage between Europe and North America, as well as the trade and investment rules governing this interaction. The complexities of the transatlantic relationship are analyzed in chapters dealing with: financial integration, transfer of knowledge and technology, transatlantic trade and corporate partnership, transatlantic trade and investment links, simultaneous intra-regional as well as transatlantic trade and the implications for antitrust policy of the activities of multinational enterprises, structural positioning and macroeconomic policy coordination, international interdependence and the role of entrepreneurship, and the reform of international financial markets. Exploring growing transatlantic trade and investment linkages within their institutional contexts, this timely book will be invaluable to academics and researchers with an interest in international business and international economics. Practicing trade lawyers and policymakers will also find the book to be a fascinating read.
In order to work effectively with Russian organizations, it is essential for potential Western partners and shareholders to fully understand their leadership style, organizational practices and business expectations. Based on extensive interviews with the pioneers of Russian business and the authors' own experiences, this perceptive new book attempts to decipher the enigma of Russia's new generation of business leaders. The authors present six in-depth case studies focusing on companies of vastly differing sizes, ranging from a newly-privatized operation, and the creation and organization of an oligarch's empire, to several entrepreneurial start-ups in different service industries. The case studies document the changes and developments that have occurred in Russia since the privatization era of the 1990s, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the emerging business leadership orientations. Grounded in Russian culture and history, the book takes a balanced view of the rapid development and transformation of the country's business leadership over the past ten years. The authors also offer perceptive conclusions and practical advice that will not only contribute to the success of Western businesses operating in Russia and other former communist countries in Eastern Europe but also help business people in Eastern Europe create high performance organizations. As we move towards a globalized economy, the need to recognise executive behaviour in Russia is becoming increasingly important. This book will provide a great source of information for academics and researchers of entrepreneurship, leadership studies and international business. Although the focus is on Russian entrepreneurs, the lessons in the book are equally as relevant for other cultures and leadership styles.
Terutomo Ozawa examines Japan's once celebrated post-war economic success from a new perspective. He applies a `flying geese' model of industrial upgrading in a country that is still catching-up, to explore the rise, fall and rebound of Japanese industry with its evolving institutions and policies. The book brings together and expands upon theories developed in the author's work over many years, using them as building blocks for his flying geese model. Concepts explored include: * economics of hierarchical concatenation, increasing factor incongruity, comparative advantage (or market) recycling * the Ricardo-Hicksian trap of industrial production, Smithian growth elan, triumvirate pro-trade structural transformation * knowledge creation versus knowledge diversion, the price-knowledge/industry-flow mechanism `a la David Hume' * the syndrome of institutional incongruity, and socially justifiable moral hazard versus degenerative moral hazard. The dynamic process of industrial upgrading is analysed in detail, and important lessons for both developing and transition economies are highlighted. This fascinating book will attract a wide-ranging readership, encompassing practitioners and academics interested in international business, economic development, trade, and political science. In addition, sociologists focussing on business and industry, and researchers on, and policymakers in, developing and transition economies will also find this book of immense interest.
Your Passport to International Business Etiquette
The most authoritative and comprehensive text of its kind, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" is your must-have guide to proper international business protocol. With countries such as China and India taking on a more significant role in the global business landscape, you can't afford not to know the practices, customs, and philosophies of other countries.
Now fully revised, updated, and expanded with over sixty country profiles, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" provides invaluable information on how to handle common business interactions with grace, respect, and an appreciation for different cultures.
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