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After more than fifty years of systematic research on multinational enterprises (MNEs) what is apparent is that there is, as yet, no unified or dominant theory of the MNE. The objective of this book is to bring into focus one particular dimension of MNE behaviour and activity that has been relatively under-researched - namely the geography of the multinational enterprise - as understood through the lens of innovation and technological change. The authors clearly demonstrate that geography is becoming increasingly important for MNEs and, in turn, MNEs are becoming progressively more important for economic geography. The pivot on which this vital relationship turns is the creation, diffusion and management of new knowledge. This unique book will prove a fascinating read for academics, students and researchers across a broad range of areas including geography, economic geography, regional science, international business and management, innovation studies, economic development. Professionals such as corporate managers and policymakers in these fields would also find this book to be of great interest.
In a time of changing trade norms, when free trade seems to be giving way to new kinds of nationalism, some fundamental questions about trade are still not being asked. Is trade consensual or coercive? Is 'free trade' as currently practiced really free? If not, what difference can trade law make in addressing economically oppressive practices that nationalistic trade policies cannot? In this book Garcia offers an examination of trade law's roots in consensual exchange, highlighting the central role of consent in differentiating trade from legally facilitated coercion, exploitation or predation. The book revisits the premise of consensual exchange which underlies the rhetoric of 'free trade', and then examines the social and political conditions that are a necessary part of a more genuine trade law system, in service of the idea that recovering consent in trade law can promote human flourishing on a global scale.
The large business corporation has become a governing institution in national and global politics. This trail-blazing book offers a critical account of its political dominance and lack of democratic legitimacy. Thanks to successful wealth generation and ideological victories the large business corporation has become an effective political actor and has entered into partnership with government in the design of public policy and delivery of public services. Stephen Wilks argues that governmental and corporate elites have transformed British politics to create a `new corporate state' with similar patterns in the USA, in competitor economies - including China - and in global governance. The argument embraces multinational corporations, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance and the inequality generated by corporate dominance. The crucial analysis presented in this ground-breaking book will prove invaluable for academics, researchers and both under- and postgraduate students with an interest in the role of the corporation in politics and society across a wide range of fields including business and management (business ethics), politics, political economy, sociology, corporate governance and strategy.
This book brings together different insights into the importance of innovation and creativity to build competitiveness in the European industry and society from different angles. The authors first look at how European countries and their policies have fared on innovation and creativity measures. They go on to examine multinational companies in particular, analyzing research and innovation at the headquarters and subsidiary level and the linkages between them. Looking at the management of innovation in firms and subsidiaries, they gain insights into how firms can innovate more effectively and efficiently. The study examines the role of management control and culture in stimulating creativity as well as an important driver of innovation. The chapters in the book are also complementary in the sense that they include qualitative as well as quantitative studies, from academic researchers to people working in the field. Researchers, professors, managers, students and policymakers interested in innovation, creativity, knowledge, multinational companies, competitiveness and Europe will be enlightened on how to be more creative and innovative.
The country of origin of goods and services can have positive or negative effect on customers' intentions to purchase. This book analyzes the impact of this effect on the international development of Italian companies in emerging markets. The chapters refer to a wide range of issues, including made-in effects in relation to ethnocentrism and to corporate social responsibility in small and medium-sized enterprises; the interactions and synergistic effects between product-related made-in images and the images of places as tourism destinations; distribution channel issues; `made-in topics' in relation to emerging markets; and a review of the relevant literature on country of origin effects. The contributors propose strategies and tools that companies might leverage to develop their international marketing and suggest policies that might strengthen these efforts. This original work will prove to be a valuable resource for students and researchers of international marketing and strategy as well as policy makers.
Based on the view that culture is dynamic and negotiated between actors, this groundbreaking book contains a collection of ten cases on cross-cultural management in practice. The cases draw on field research revealing challenges and insights from working across nations and cultures. Each case provides recommendations for practitioners that are developed into a framework for effective intercultural interactions as well as offering illustrations and insights on how to handle actual cross-cultural issues. This enriching book covers various topics including international collaborations across and within multinational companies, organizational culture in international joint ventures and knowledge transfer. Based on empirical fieldwork and qualitative analyses, this path-breaking book will appeal to graduate and postgraduate students in international management as well as practitioners.
The globalization of business is a reality that confronts organizations of all sizes from different nations and cultures. This book serves as a comprehensive guide for understanding the nature of cultural variations that affect important aspects of organizational behavior. The authors expertly cover all of the relevant functions that managers are concerned with in the process of managing global organizations. Various research-based theories and findings are discussed to explain the significance of cultural variations in these phenomena. Readers will gain a clear perspective on how cultural variations have the potential to affect organizational functioning and effectiveness across national borders. A mastery of the fundamental concepts and issues covered in this book will enable future managers of multinational and global corporations to become more effective in dealing with people in different countries and enhance organizational effectiveness on an ongoing basis. Scholars and students will also find this book a path-breaking resource for understanding this important topic.
Six Billion Shoppers takes readers on an exciting and colourful journey around the world to visit the next e-commerce mega markets and explore how a new e-commerce boom is opening opportunities for entrepreneurs and global brands alike.
From China to India to Nigeria, e-commerce is entering a golden era in countries that were long left out of the e-commerce gold rush experienced in the West. If the story of the first twenty years of e-commerce’s growth was set in developed markets, the story of the next twenty years will be set in emerging ones. The rise of e-commerce in emerging markets is being driven by three major trends: widespread internet adoption, a rising middle class, and, most importantly, innovative new business models that serve the needs of local customers better than the models used by western e-commerce giants.
Travelling through Nigeria, China, India, Southeast Asia and Latin America, Porter Erisman addresses e-commerce across these new markets and what it means for western brands. He argues that e-commerce in developing countries is revolutionary and will play a much larger role in emerging markets than in the West. With e-commerce in emerging markets entering a rapid period of expansion, Six Billion Shoppers explains how to seize the massive opportunity created by emerging market consumers and provides practical advice on how to ride this new business trend.
Accelerating processes of economic globalization have fundamentally reshaped the organization of the global economy towards much greater integration and functional interdependence through cross-border economic activity. In this interconnected world system, a new form of economic organization has emerged: Global Production Networks (GPNs). This brings together a wide array of economic actors, most notably capitalist firms, state institutions, labour unions, consumers and non-government organizations, in the transnational production of economic value. National and sub-national economic development in this highly interdependent global economy can no longer be conceived of, and understood within, the distinct territorial boundaries of individual countries and regions. Instead, global production networks are organizational platforms through which actors in these different national or regional economies compete and cooperate for a larger share of the creation, transformation, and capture of value through transnational economic activity. They are also vehicles for transferring the value captured between different places. This book ultimately aims to develop a theory of global production networks that explains economic development in the interconnected global economy. While primarily theoretical in nature, it is well grounded in cutting-edge empirical work in the parallel and highly impactful strands of social science literature on the changing organization of the global economy relating to global commodity chains (GCC), global value chains (GVC), and global production networks (GPN).
This absorbing book addresses the seemingly simple question of who rules the world by linking it to debates about who owns the world and what this means for the dynamics of global power distribution. Several expert contributors focus on global issues, including the role of transnational finance, interlocking directorates, ownership and tax havens. Others examine how these issues at the global level interact with the regional or nation state level in the US, the UK, China, Australia and Mexico. The book scrutinizes globalization from a fresh, holistic perspective, examining the relationship between the national and transnational to uncover the most significant structures and agents of power. Possible policy futures are also considered. Academics and researchers across a varied spectrum of fields encompassing business and management, international studies and public policy will find this book both fascinating and important.
Globalization has been the subject of fierce academic and public debates over the past two decades, but the focus has tended to revolve around 'objective' aspects linked to economics and technology. This authoritative two-volume set, edited by a leading academic in the field, brings together important papers which cover the equally crucial 'subjective' dimensions with particular emphasis on the production and dispersion of cultural meanings, identities and practices. Along with an original introduction, this research collection will be of use to anyone with an interest in the subject of globalization and culture.
The Handbook provides an impressive state-of-the-art overview of the international strategic management field as an area of scholarly inquiry. The great strength of the work is the thoughtfulness of the messages conveyed by the expert team of authors. The implications for future international strategy research and for international management practice are profound and will influence the next generation of scholars in international strategy as well as senior level managers. Corporate executives will continue to operate in a world that is far from flat and will use this volume as a reliable compass, in the form of powerful conceptual frameworks, to navigate uncharted territory in the global economy. The Handbook presents a collection of 24 original research papers that should serve international strategy scholars and reflective MNE managers alike.
This insightful book analyses the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China as well as making valuable contributions to the theory of FDI more broadly. The authors provide empirical analysis of key factors including the location-specific determinants of FDI; the impact of FDI on domestic investment, income distribution, consumption and tourism; the relationship between FDI inflows and income inequality; causality between FDI, domestic investment and economic growth; and causality between FDI and tourism. The study concludes that FDI plays a crucial and positive role in the economic development of China. Rather than crowding out domestic investment, FDI is found to stimulate economic growth by complementing it. China's Economic Miracle will be warmly welcomed by potential investors who are interested in investing in China. It will be highly useful for academics and postgraduate students with an interest in FDI or the Chinese economy. With strong policy-oriented analyses and discussions on implications the book will also prove invaluable to policy-makers in various government and private sectors who have trade-links with China.
The second edition of this Handbook provides up-to-date insight into ground-breaking research on international human resource issues today. These issues are faced by multinational companies which can be as small as one person with a computer and Internet connection or as large as a medium-sized country. Written by the field's most distinguished researchers, the book will stimulate thought for new research and provide a glimpse of where we have been and where we are going. The book explores issues such as the importance of linking IHRM activities to organizational strategy and culture; talent management; staffing; performance management; leadership development; diversity management; international assignment and mobility issues; and the role of IHRM in the management of global teams and cross-border joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions. The Handbook illustrates that IHRM research is both theoretically deep and eclectic. Drawing upon a range of paradigms and perspectives this compendium will prove invaluable for HRM scholars, doctoral students, and others interested in IHRM research.
Today's global economy has a dark underbelly. Using cutting-edge technology and age-old techniques of deceit and manipulation, corporate spies are the hidden puppeteers of globalized business. They control markets, determine prices, influence corporate decisions, and manage the flow of data and information of some of the world's biggest conglomerates. In an age when international conflicts are as likely to be corporation versus corporation as they are to be nation versus nation, the actions of these remarkably efficient covert operatives raise a host of crucial--and frightening--moral and legal questions.
In his gripping, alarming exposE, Eamon Javers recounts the sordid history of this hidden world--from Allan Pinkerton, the nation's first "private eye," through Howard Hughes's private CIA, to the shocking realities of a vast modern-day spying network with tentacles reaching into virtually every corner of the globe.
This inspiring Handbook brings together alternative perspectives from a range of disciplines to shed light on the nature of institutions and their relationship to firm-level practices and outcomes across a wide range of national settings. Expertly written by leading scholars from a range of different starting points, this compendium presents a synthesis of recent work relating to institutionally-informed accounts from transitional and emerging markets, as well as from mature economies. It specifically focuses on the linkage between institutions and what goes on inside firms, and the relationship between setting, strategic choice and systemic outcomes. The Handbook is explicitly multi-disciplinary, encompassing perspectives from a range of the functional areas of management studies. It will prove invaluable for postgraduate students and faculty in international business, and the wider research community in the areas of international business, corporate governance, socio-economics, and comparative HRM.
This important and original book critically evaluates case study practices and calls for a more pluralistic future for case research in international business (IB) and international management (IM). IB and IM researchers typically rely on a case study approach that could be characterized as `qualitative positivism'. The editors and contributors look beyond this disciplinary convention and encourage pluralism in IB and IM case research. Their key argument is that increased awareness of the prevailing disciplinary convention - and its limitations - increases the potential for theoretical insight and methodological versatility in case research. The contributions provide critical, novel and innovative perspectives on the case study. The book offers inspiration to case authors, and is an authoritative methodological reference for reviewers of case research.
The Handbook of Research on International Advertising presents the latest thinking, experiences and results in a wide variety of areas in international advertising. It incorporates those visions and insights into areas that have seldom been touched in prior international advertising research, such as research in digital media, retrospective research, cultural psychology, and innovative methodologies. Forming a major reference tool, the Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of the area, including entries on: theoretical advances in international advertising research, culture and its impact on advertising effectiveness, online media strategy in global advertising, methodological issues in international advertising, effectiveness of specific creative techniques, global advertising agencies, international perspectives of corporate reputation, transnational trust, global consumer cultural positioning, and performance of integrated marketing communications, among others. Researchers, students and practitioners in the fields of marketing, advertising, communication, and media management will find this important and stimulating resource invaluable.
Multinational companies are crucial actors in a global knowledge-based economy, combining the advantages of global and locally coordinated production and innovation strategies with specific regional and national factors. This book questions how MNCs can best exploit institutionally embedded knowledge, explores the utilization of external institutionally embedded knowledge in corporate innovation processes, and addresses the challenges of embeddedness. The expert contributors draw on managerial, economic, geographic and sociological perspectives to explore the essential roles of regional and national knowledge infrastructures and the cultural and political environment of MNCs. They build upon, update, and extend the discussion on the regional and national embeddedness of MNCs with new country case studies and comparative analyses, focussing on the relationship between innovation in companies and regional studies. Significantly, the book also establishes a link between two important debates that have hitherto been largely disconnected: Regional studies and international business studies separately address issues that fall within the scope of the book, but do not provide an integrated analysis of the embeddedness of MNCs. This pathbreaking book goes some way to fill this gap in the literature and as such, will prove invaluable to academics, R&D managers, regional policy makers and students with an interest in international business, business economics, regional studies and organization studies.
In its Fourth Edition, this textbook explores how economic activity is organised from a new institutional economics perspective. Using transactions costs as a continuing theme, the book delivers the necessary skills to understand the evolution of organisational forms and the strengths and weaknesses of different varieties of private and public governance. The importance of entrepreneurship is emphasised throughout. Public policy concerning competition, regulation and the public utilities is used to illustrate the involvement of subjective judgements about transactions costs in all types of organisational choice. Key features of the Fourth Edition: * Using impartial analysis, Martin Ricketts evaluates business enterprise through Neoclassical, Austrian and Evolutionary economics, allowing students to learn the strengths and weaknesses of each methodological perspective * Using a clear conceptual framework, the author explains principal-agent theory and the transactions costs paradigm in detail * The chapters are designed around a set of classic papers, giving students an understanding of the historical development of the discipline * Updated examples emphasise the applicability to different technological circumstances and the dynamic nature of studying economic organisation * Additional examples are included for teachers to further discussion or create extended seminar work. A key resource for advanced undergraduate courses or an excellent introductory text at graduate level, this Fourth Edition will provide students of economics, business and political economy with a greater awareness of how business enterprises operate and adapt in response to technological change and competition.
This impressive Handbook provides a dynamic perspective on the development of successful born global firms, including evolutionary phases and pathways of growth, emergence of entire born global industries, role of founders' linkages, experience, culture and training, as well as collaboration with large MNEs. The expert contributors and the editors explore the origin and evolution of born globals and the changing history of this sector. They outline the training involved in developing international intellectual entrepreneurs and study the effects of different cultures on the origin and growth of born globals. The Handbook focuses on the different types of born globals that emerge from the general set of SMEs - ranging from the pure born globals to the born again globals, the born regionals, and their sub group of born again regionals. It also innovatively differentiates these from internationalizing SMEs and international new ventures. Providing a dynamic perspective on the development of successful born global firms, this book will prove essential reading for researchers and students of international business. Founders of born global firms will also learn about novel management practices, whilst educational institutions and governments will find invaluable insights on how to foster the emergence of successful born globals.
Although there is an expanding body of literature on the characteristics, aspirations, motivations, challenges and barriers of mainstream entrepreneurs, relatively little is known about whether these findings can be applied to the entrepreneurial activities of minority groups. This book addresses this short-fall and presents an international review of the characteristics, motivations and obstacles of eight minority groups: younger; older; women; ethnic; immigrant; lesbian, gay and bisexual; disabled; and indigenous entrepreneurs. The expert contributors discover enormous variability between these minority groups, such as in the motivators that either `pushed' or `pulled' individuals into an entrepreneurial venture, as well as diverse attitudes toward `success': some groups wanted to achieve financial security - others wanted to enhance their sense of self-worth, or to change existing social and economic circumstances. However, some striking similarities were noted: initial disadvantage often created a powerful impetus to starting up a business venture, and accessing finance was extremely difficult for many. Including comparative cross cultural data and case studies on the various minority groups reviewed, both post graduate students and undergraduate students studying entrepreneurship will find this book an invaluable resource. In addition, it will also be of interest to policy makers, governments and all those who wish to comprehend the nature of small business ownership for a wide range of minority business owners.
The field of globalization and transport has witnessed a surge in interest over the past two decades with scholars questioning the reasoning behind its growth, its impact on the environment and trade as well as its effect on the development of cities and supply chain logistics. The editors have selected seminal works from leading academics to address these issues and outline the diverse and controversial nature of this subject. Along with an original introduction, this timely volume will be of immense value to researchers, students and practitioners in the field of globalization and transport.
A concise and authoritative upper level undergraduate and postgraduate text for international business and business economics courses. This comprehensive critical analysis of concepts, theories and effects relating to transnational corporations will prove to be an invaluable learning tool to post graduate and advanced undergraduate students across a broad section of disciplines including business/international business, economics, international relations, and development studies. Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this highly acclaimed textbook includes new features such as deeper analysis of evolutionary theories, a discussion of Penrose and of the network theory, and an additional chapter on innovation effects. Lecturers and researchers wishing to familiarize themselves with the theoretical developments of the subject will find this book to be an effective and informative teaching resource.
The global expansion of business has generated a tremendous interest among scholars, but there remains a strong need for theoretical insights into conducting marketing operations abroad. This thoroughly revised edition addresses this lack in the extant literature. The book consists of insights from leading scholars in international marketing, working not only to advance the theoretical underpinnings of today's most important international marketing issues, but also to provide insights for how the field of scholarship and practice of international marketing might develop in the future. The authors, top scholars from around the world, provide useful theoretical insights designed to stimulate contemplation and discussion, and to provide guidelines for future research on international marketing. The volume includes coverage of topics in four main areas: Part I looks at global branding while Part II examines issues of marketing strategy on a world stage. Part III offers chapters on cultural issues and the book closes with a more detailed look at marketing at the bottom of the pyramid in Part IV. Scholars and students in marketing and international business will find much of value in this comprehensive volume.
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