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Globalizing International Human Resource Management sets out to cover as a wide range of regional and national cultures, as well as perspectives, as possible, in order to explore how these might shape both theory and practice in this field. In attempting this, it focuses on key concepts within it, such as human resources (HR) HR management (HRM), international HRM (IHRM), strategic HRM (SHRM), human capital and talent as they relate to foreign direct investment (FDI) These are discussed in a range of spatial and organizational settings, including multinational corporations (MNC) and international joint ventures (IJV). The book covers a wide range of countries and cultures in North America, Europe and and Asia. Next, we have a set of nationally-based cases that represent exemplifications of many of the conceptual points made by contributors, who include scholars based in a wide variety of countries around the world, in universities and business schools. This book was previously published as a special issue of The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
The theme of this book is moral leadership in action as it manifests itself implicitly and explicitly in European business organizations. We understand leadership as interplay among people at all levels within organizations and also within the economic system by which people are bound together through particular forms of interaction. The contributions collected in this volume mirror the plurality of approaches we find in the theoretical writings of academics in different European countries. The additional business cases from six different nations show how leaders actually have adopted and integrated working with values in their own organizations, i.e. how they put moral leadership into action. While the selected papers are not meant to be representative of each country, particular economic and cultural traditions are apparent in both thinking and managing moral leadership. The contributors, by presenting this emerging multicultural pattern of Europe, contribute to a better and more knowledgeable understanding of how European business leaders pursue their goals. Managers, students and teachers in business, ethics and leadership studies will find this volume an indispensable guide to the unique contributions of European leadership scholars.
This book examines the way in which the increasing internationalization of services, including the operation of multinationals in this sector, interacts with the process of innovation in services. The book challenges the theoretical traditions that have developed around the analysis of service innovation and internationalization, and argues for a new research agenda. The distinguished contributors address many of the most pertinent issues and adopt a variety of theoretical and empirical approaches to enrich the debates. In contrast to most other books on this topic, this volume pays particular attention to services that are knowledge or technology intensive. It elucidates the process of internationalization of such services (through trade and FDI) and stresses the important role it plays in the globalization of production, distribution and innovation. The book also highlights the significant implications service internationalization can have for the competitiveness of firms, regions and countries. The authors thoroughly evaluate trade and investment statistics in order to identify different modes of internationalization and the substantial cross-national differences that this reveals. They move on to examine the organizational structure of multinationals, the new international division of labour and the factors which can influence the location decisions of knowledge-intensive services. Using extensive survey data from a variety of different countries, they accurately identify the trends, characteristics and drivers which have acted as a catalyst for the increasing internationalization of knowledge-intensive services, as well as the obstacles which can hinder this process. Adopting a truly global perspective, this significant new volume will be of considerable interest to students, scholars and policymakers in the fields of international business, innovation and management.
To own or not to own? To make or to buy? To franchise or to manage? To contract long or to contract short? To trust or not to trust? To license or not to license? These and other questions are the subject matter of this introduction to the theory of economic organization. This fully updated third edition includes: new developments in the property rights theory of the firm; further extended treatment of co-operative and mutual forms of enterprise; entirely new sections on transactions cost economics and public policy; and new chapters on the economics of privatisation and the regulation of "natural monopoly". In addition, transaction cost, property rights and agency approaches are contrasted, and Austrian and evolutionary criticisms of standard theory are explored. The author applies these theories to a wide range of questions from the choice of piece rates or time rates in contracting to the debate on Anglo-American versus other "varieties of capitalism". Public policy in the fields of regulation and privatisation is also considered using the same framework.
As national economies become more closely linked, the value of more active corporate and policy level cooperation is becoming increasingly recognised. This book promotes the concept of alliance capitalism - a spirit of collegial entrepreneurship - as a means to facilitate more harmonious development in the international economy. The authors examine balances between the competitive and cooperative activities of firms and governments in major industrialized countries from perspectives of efficiency and social justice. They advocate cooperation to overcome internationalized market failures and policy failures, and to reduce imbalances in the spread of gains from global commerce. This advocacy is based especially on comparisons between corporate and policy level activities in the USA and the EU, and between the USA and the EU. The potential advantages of strengthening cooperation are stressed with emphasis on imperatives being set by continuing technological advances. Alliance Capitalism and Corporate Management will be required reading for all scholars and students of international management and international political economy, business leaders and corporate managers, and decision makers in the fields of industrial and competition policy.
Alternative Theories of the Firm provides a range of fundamental readings embracing the economics of firm behaviour from a non-neoclassical perspective. The collection covers several basic topics including: the importance of transaction costs and agency theory for the analysis of firm behaviour; capabilities and resource-based theories of the firm; the economics of firm strategy; behavioural theories; Austrian theories; evolutionary theories; and the historical development of firms. The readings include selections from traditional masters as well as writings by more recent authors. This collection will be of great value both to scholars who want a summary of developments in the field and to students of industrial economics and corporate strategy.
Threats to multinational corporations come in two forms: natural and man-made. This book illustrates the types of risks that confront corporations when working outside of North America. It provides key tools and understanding that are required to do business in a safe and secure manner, no matter the level of risk. It walks through a logical framework for safety and security program development from Day One. Using real-world case studies and examples, the book is a useful reference to security managers, security consultants, contractors, frequent global business travelers, and for those who are presently or soon-to-be assigned in overseas positions.
This volume explores Malaysian business in the era that began with the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1999. The contributions, by a broad range of international experts, are informed by a wish to identify what Malaysia needs to do to sustain economic growth, remain internationally competitive and further social stability in the post-crisis period. Malaysia's unconventional response to the crisis suggests that its business community has developed a new level of confidence in its ability to adopt and sustain innovative policies even when these strategies challenge the international financial community. This response is perceived as evidence that Malaysian business has indeed entered a new era characterised by a high level of confidence in the nation's capacity to weather the external periodic shocks that are a feature of the current wave of globalisation. The book argues that there are grounds for optimism in this regard while recognising that the true test will occur when Malaysia is compelled to confront a major decline in its international export markets brought on by a truly major crisis such as an OECD-wide recession. Business scholars and professionals as well as readers interested in Asian business and economics will find this volume informative.
This volume contains a selection of John Dunning's best known and highly acclaimed writings on the theory of international business activity. Spanning more than three decades, the 16 contributions trace the evolution of his thoughts and ideas as an economist, from his first article on the determinants of international production, published in 1973, to his most recent essay on relational assets, networks and global business activity, completed in 2002. Theories and Paradigms of International Business Activity gives particular prominence to the author's much renowned eclectic paradigm, which he first promulgated at a Nobel Symposium on the international allocation of economic activity in 1976. Since then, the author has written over 60 articles, pamphlets and chapters in books which have extended, refined and updated his theorizing on the interface between trade, FDI and MNE activity, in the light of the changing characteristics of the world economy and advances in international business scholarship. This, the first of two volumes of John Dunning's work, is essential reading for all students, scholars and researchers with a special interest in the reasons behind the explosive growth in post-war FDI and the globalization of business activity.
Global Capitalism, FDI and Competitiveness comprises 15 of John Dunning's most widely acknowledged writings on the changing characteristics of the global economy over the past three decades. In particular, it examines how these events have shaped, and been shaped by, the growing internationalization of all forms of business activity. The book is dived into five thematic sections, each of which illustrates a particular aspect of change and the author's analysis of it. The volume examines: * the main features of the new global economy, its origin, opportunities and challenges * the author's recent writings on the factors affecting the location of economic activity by international firms, and the implications for national and regional governments * the changing nature and form of the contribution of FDI and cross-border strategic alliances to economic development and to the restructuring of national economies * the relationship between FDI, the competitive advantages of international firms and the productivity and dynamic comparative advantage of the economies in which they operate. * an examination of the changing role and power of national governments as they seek to evaluate and influence the extent of both inbound and outbound FDI. This volume will be warmly welcomed by all scholars and researchers of international business and particularly those interested in globalization, regional economics and FDI.
Foreign Direct Investment from emerging economies reached $130 billion in 2005, the highest level ever recorded. The number of multinationals from emerging economies in the global Fortune 500 has increased from 19 in 1990 to 47 in 2005, with about ten of them coming from Latin America. This book focuses on understanding this new phenomenon.
This book focuses on current cutting-edge research concerning the increasing strategic importance of subsidiary networks to the multinational firm. It combines contributions from three major related areas of inquiry: the changing theoretical conception of networks and the structure of the multinational firm, the importance of spillovers and agglomeration economies related to multinational investments, and the management of the flow of information and knowledge from headquarters to subsidiaries and vice versa. The book approaches the network structure of the firm from the different perspectives of the expert international contributors, while also combining theoretical perspectives with recent empirical evidence. Network Knowledge in International Business offers students in international business and strategy a cross-section of relevant research and current empirical evidence relating to knowledge management and the management of the modern multinational.
Experience suggests that trade liberalization has contributed substantially to the remarkable growth of industrialised countries. However, for various reasons many developing countries have not yet been able to integrate successfully into global markets and reap the growth-inducing and poverty-reducing benefits of trade. This book argues that while developing countries are heavily represented in the WTO - accounting for about four-fifths of its membership - there is still plenty of scope for the world trading system to work more effectively in their interests. The book examines the achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in reforming the world trading system and the challenges to future reforms. It begins with an overview of the genesis of the world trading system and moves on to examine the key issues as they relate to developing countries. These include further liberalization of agricultural trade; abolition of the Multifibre Arrangement; environmental and labour standards; competition policy; regional integration in South East Asia; and the implications for developing Asian countries of the liberalization of the Chinese economy and its WTO membership. Furthermore, the book discusses the links between trade liberalization and poverty reduction - drawing on the experience of Asian countries - and puts forward arguments on how trade liberalization could effect a greater reduction in poverty. This is a timely and succinct presentation of the critical issues relating to the world trading system in the context of developing countries in general, and Asia-Pacific countries in particular. It will interest and inform a wide readership including scholars and students of development and international economics, and practitioners and policymakers concerned with international trade issues and global trade relations.
Over 350 million people are affected each year by disaster and
conflict. The international community is often unable to respond
effectively to these crises. The HRI is an annual assessment of how
well governments respond to humanitarian crises around the world.
The HRI 2009 focuses on the effects of the global financial crisis
on donor funding for humanitarian assistance, strategies to
safeguard the quality and effectiveness of aid for people affected
by disasters, conflicts and emergencies.
What makes the US different from other advanced economies is the opportunity for newcomers acting as entrepreneurs to start new companies, a few of which will then change the world. This book develops three points. First, the New Economy is real: part micro, part macro, and all digital. Second, its emergence around networked PCs propelled the US resurgence in the world economy during the 1990s. Third, rather than subsiding, the current US lead in information technology (IT) could well increase over the next decade. The reason lies in the clustered linking of venture capital and entrepreneurs in a system that can be stylized as `the invention of the method of innovation'. The central theme of the book is the vital role played by newcomers, acting as entrepreneurs, to overthrow the old order and blast through the deep tendencies toward stagnation that afflict advanced, affluent economies. Related strands are (1) an update and reappraisal of Joseph Schumpeter's vision of capitalist development, (2) a regional focus on the rebirth of US computing, and (3) a detailed inquiry into the geography of innovation in strategic clusters of venture capital firms and IT knowledge workers. The author provides a sharply etched portrayal of the geography of the new economy. He lists specific case studies of the failure of established managerial corporations to capitalize on inventions, a failure remedied by newcomers. The book recounts traditional and new theories of the entrepreneur and of creative destruction. Primers on venture capital, IPOs, and internet business models are included, as are comparisons of theory and data on the emergence of new `strategic cities'. Lastly, it offers a brief, readable, detailed, and company-specific history of the PC revolution and the coming of the internet. Economists, geographers, and regional scientists, students and readers interested in the digital economy, the internet, the history of economic thought, and the New Economy and investors will all find this book revealing and enlightening.
Top scholars in the field of international business (IB) contribute to this comprehensive analysis of the current state-of-the-art in IB research. The focus of the book is to examine the current state of international business research from an issue-oriented approach rather than the functional approaches that have been characteristic in the recent evolution of the field. In evaluating the current state and future research directions in research areas unique to international business, the book is structured in three parts: the macro-environment, interactions between business and institutions, and competition and strategy. The thirteen chapters in the book deal with specific topics (including regional integration, cultural and financial globalization, intellectual property protection, firm relations with various governments and multilateral agencies, business groups, international acquisitions and alliances, and the impact of the internet on international business) and provide descriptive and theoretical approaches to the understanding of contemporary and potential future issues in international business research. Scholars, students and policymakers interested in international business issues will find this collection a unique and useful tool in their work.
The advent of the Information Age has transformed the ways in which individuals work, travel, and conduct their daily activity. Anna Nagurney and June Dong lay out the theory of supernetworks, networks that exist over and above existing electronic networks, in order to formalize decision-making in the Information Age. Supernetworks are conceptual in scope, graphical in perspective, and, with the accompanying theory, predictive in nature. In this book, the authors provide a unifying framework for the study of decision-making by a variety of economic agents including consumers and producers as well as distinct intermediaries in the context of today's networked economy. They provide the conceptual, analytical, and computational tools for the study of supernetworks. Their approach is rigorous and of sufficient generality and detail to give added insight into the behavior and structure of large-scale, interacting and competitive network systems, such as transportation, telecommunication, and financial networks. Areas studied include: supply chain networks with electronic commerce, financial networks with intermediation, telecommunicating versus commuting decision-making, teleshopping versus shopping decision-making, as well as transportation and location decisions. Case studies drawn from practice are provided for illustration purposes. Academics and practitioners in economics, business, and operations research along with management scientists, transportation and logistics researchers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians will find this book fascinating and useful.
Since the 1970s, there have been many changes to the ways in which Japanese firms have conducted business. The editors of this volume examine the strategies of Japanese subsidiaries in the new global economy and present, in four parts, a comprehensive picture of the nature of Japanese multinational enterprises. The book addresses the overall nature of Japanese investment in international markets, and its broader implications for corporate performance. The entry mode choice and its relationship to performance is then examined, in an attempt to establish overall trends in the performance of various modes. The focus then shifts explicitly to joint ventures since nearly half of all Japanese subsidiaries take this form. Finally, the management strategies that Japanese firms have used in their foreign subsidiaries are investigated. Japanese Subsidiaries in the New Global Economy utilizes empirical analyses based on a very large, longitudinal data set, coupled with state of the art conceptual development. This volume provides a complete current picture of the international strategy of Japanese firms, which will be both useful and informative for researchers, scholars and policy makers in international business, international economics, foreign investment, joint ventures and expatriate management.
An effective coach can help the business leader make sense of the challenges and complexities of modern international business, unlocking the potential of both leader and organization. This important new Handbook offers the first comprehensive and detailed introduction to the theory and practice of international business coaching, drawing on the very latest academic research, as well as real-world examples of international best practice.
This book provides practitioners and students with an innovative theoretical framework, which extends existing coaching models to place coaching within cultural, organizational and group-team contexts. Contributors from around the world explore different perspectives and practices and offer practical tools to apply the theories and models to the real-life business context.
The Routledge Companion to International Business Coaching is essential reading for all trainee business coaches, all students of coaching theory and method, and for all business leaders looking to understand better the role of the modern business coach.
This topical book interprets firms, governments and economic change from an entrepreneurial perspective. Essentially, it applies the Austrian theory of human agency and evolutionary theories of the firm to explain economic organisation, the state and institutional change. Tony Yu begins by discussing the nature of entrepreneurship and the firm followed by an analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in economic change. He thoroughly analyses the process of economic development in late industrialisers, within an entrepreneurial framework outlined within the book. The author argues that ordinary and extraordinary discovery are associated with routine or imitative entrepreneurship and Schumpetarian entrepreneurship respectively. Using this classification, the author shows how it is the interaction of various types of entrepreneurial activities that transformed East Asian latecomers such as Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong from traditional agrarian and fishing economies into international centres of trading, service industries and finance. Firms, Governments and Economic Change will be of special interest to scholars of industrial economics, entrepreneurship and Asian studies. It will also be of use to governmental organisations responsible for economic development, as the analysis is thoroughly up to date easy to understand.
Written by eminent scholars who are well known within their fields across Europe, this book explores changes in the international economic environment, their impacts on the strategy of firms and the spatial consequences of these changes in strategy. The economic environment in which major companies operate is subject to rapid and important changes. Such changes have their impact on the strategy of major and even smaller companies and changes in these firm's strategies often have important implications for the location choice of their activities, be it production, outsourcing, R&D or administrative activities. Addressing these issues in a clear yet rigorous manner, this book is an excellent resource for students and researchers working and studying in the areas of international business, corporations, business strategy, economic geography and business geography.
The world of finance has been revolutionized in the last twenty years by factors such as the liberalization and subsequent integration of global financial markets and the advances in computing and communications technology. These important changes have led to a stream of financial innovations and theoretical breakthroughs in the area of pricing diverse financial instruments. More than ever before, we witness a process where international securities are traded in a global marketplace. This comprehensive collection encompasses the most recent contributions in the area of international securities. It includes the most important articles on current issues and future development in this key area of international finance. It will be an essential source of reference to researchers, students and practitioners alike.
This book is concerned with the role of financial intermediation in economic development and growth in the context of Malaysia. Using an analytical framework, the author investigates the Malaysian economy from 1960 onwards to examine how far financial development has progressed in the course of economic development, and whether it has been instrumental in promoting economic growth. A significant improvement in the Malaysian financial system, coupled with rapid economic growth and a rich history of financial sector reforms, makes Malaysia an interesting case study for this subject. The author shows that some government interventions seem to have impacted negatively on economic growth, whereas repressionist financial policies such as interest rate controls, high reserve requirements and directed credit programmes seem to have contributed positively to financial development. The analysis concludes that financial development leads to higher output growth via promoting private saving and private investment. Shedding light on the evolutionary role of financial system and the interacting mechanisms between financial development and economic growth, this book will be of interest to those interested in economic and financial development, financial liberalization, saving behaviour and investment analysis and Asian Studies.
China is now among the top hosts for foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in the world. This fact, combined with recent developments in internationalisation and economic growth in China, ensures a perfect opportunity to identify the determinants and impact of FDI in the largest transition economy in the world. Based on the latest official data, this book adopts a panel data approach to the analysis of the national and regional determinants of inward FDI in China and its impact on regional economic growth, labour productivity and international trade. The Chinese evidence shows that FDI, international trade and economic-growth are interrelated. This book will be welcomed by scholars of emerging economies, international business - especially those interested in FDI - and international trade as well as those specialising in the Chinese economy.
Globalization and the Small Open Economy investigates the specific role of small open countries in a globalizing economic system and assesses the unique pressures and opportunities afforded them by globalization. Traditionally, in contrast to large countries, small open economies (SOEs) have relied on international economic policy rather than domestic policy as a means to foster national economic development. Their firms also have a far greater reliance on host countries to gain competitive advantage than those of larger nations. This would suggest that globalization has potentially a far greater impact on SOEs than on large countries. The contributors to this volume concur with this view and seek to outline the challenges and opportunities faced by policymakers and managers of multinational enterprises from SOEs. They examine the role of government, environmental policy, inward and outward foreign direct investment and multinational management and conclude that, on balance, globalization provides more of an opportunity than a threat to economic growth in these countries. An innovative collection with fascinating new insights on the present and future role of small, open countries in the global economy, this will be an important new reference source for academics and students, public policy research institutes, international business scholars and trade economists.
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