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International strategies and the organizational designs of multinational corporations are in a period of transition; the dominant designs of the recent past are gone and new dominant designs have not yet emerged. This authoritative collection of articles by leading international scholars presents the dominant ways of examining and understanding these current changes. It investigates contrasting points of view and provides the reader with a framework for evaluating the transformation of international corporations and for developing a critical insight which will be as useful for understanding future changes as it is for understanding those that have already occurred.
Taiwanese foreign direct investment rapidly expanded in the mid-1980s when the domestic wage rate and the value of the Taiwanese currency skyrocketed simultaneously. Losing their competitive edge at home, many Taiwanese firms relocated to lower wage countries; mainly Southeast Asia and China. Taiwanese Firms in Southeast Asia provides a comprehensive review of Taiwan's direct investment in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam. It also explores the motivation behind investment in Asia, Europe and the US. In most countries, incidence of foreign direct investment is positively correlated with firm size. However, in Taiwanese firms, the opposite is true. The book examines the reasons for this and assesses the difference in practice between small and large firms conducting foreign direct investment, focusing on the manufacturing sector. The book also includes an original, comprehensive survey and a series of interviews with Taiwanese parent firms and their subsidiaries in Southeast Asia. The authors conclude that networking underscores the core competitiveness of Taiwanese firms and when these firms invest abroad, they attempt to maintain a close connection with domestic networks to retain competitiveness and flexibility. However, they will have difficulty in sustaining this in the long-term because co-ordination of production across national borders requires intensive input of managerial resources which are scarce among Taiwanese firms. In the long-term, they have to localize and integrate themselves into the local networks. The book is a result of joint research efforts by Taiwanese, American and Southeast Asian scholars and will be required reading for students and scholars of economies in Southeast Asia, international business, Asian studies and multinational enterprise.
This marketing classic has been expanded to include new commentary, new illustrations, and a bonus book: The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding
Smart and accessible, The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding is the definitive text on branding, pairing anecdotes about some of the best brands in the world, like Rolex, Volvo, and Heineken, with the signature savvy of marketing gurus Al and Laura Ries. Combining The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding and The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding, this book proclaims that the only way to stand out in today's marketplace is to build your product or service into a brand -- and provides the step-by-step instructions you need to do so.
The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding also tackles one of the most challenging marketing problems today: branding on the Web. The Rieses divulge the controversial and counterintuitive strategies and secrets that both small and large companies have used to establish internet brands. The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding is the essential primer on building a category-dominating, world-class brand.
In this versatile and engaging textbook the authors integrate diverse, global examples with coverage of all key topics to produce the most practical and multi-perspective international business environment textbook. Case studies on Google, Oxfam, and Netflix, as well as coverage of the latest developments in globalization, Trump's presidency, and emerging markets showcase the realities of business today and ensure students have the grounding they need to effectively explore and analyse the issues facing organizations globally. Students are supported in their learning with chapter summaries, diagrams, and a comprehensive glossary, but also challenged by counterpoint boxes, learning tasks, and review questions in every chapter, encouraging critical thinking and research skills. Even with its comprehensive breadth of coverage, The International Business Environment remains concise and accessible through use of the PESTLE framework to steer its analysis. Now in its fourth edition, this book is the ideal companion to any international business environment course. This book is accompanied by a range of supporting online resources: For students: Multiple-choice questions A glossary Library of video links Web exercises Web links Additional economic resources For lecturers PowerPoint slides Answers to review questions Answers to case study questions Extended case studies Figures and tables from the book
This new book investigates how the relationships of international business networks (one buyer-multiple buyers) develop over time, looking at the geographical angle as well as an actor composition point of view.
Bart Kamp presents a framework that reveals what business-to-business (b2b) factors explain buyer-supplier co-location patterns, making it possible to predict the geographical behaviour of suppliers, and also assesses whether longevity is truly the deep-rooted feature of international b2b network relationships that it is often claimed to be.
The Second Edition of International Business includes recent impacts on international business such as the financial crisis, Brexit and the changing political landscape, Chinese steel prices and the Panama Papers revelations. It includes two new chapters on understanding people and organizations in International Business as well as coverage of recent international reports from Amnesty, Oxfam and the World Bank. Conceived by Chris Grey as an antidote to conventional textbooks, each book in the `Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap' series takes a core area of the curriculum and turns it on its head by providing a critical and sophisticated overview of the key issues and debates in an informal, conversational and often humorous way. Suitable for students of International Business, professionals working in global organizations and anyone curious about the workings of the international business world.
Differences in technology between countries and the effect of this on trade performance have important consequences for the growth and development of countries. This book analyses the role of innovation in influencing the trade performance of developed countries. It presents an up-to-date systematic empirical evaluation of the role of technology in a group of key industrialized economies and integrates differences in technology into the debate about European Union and country convergence in general. The book will be welcomed by scholars and students of industrial economics, the economics of technology change and international trade.
This book examines cross-cultural managerial competence across all managerial functions. Focusing particularly on the hospitality and tourism industry, editor Saee examines the cross-cultural implications of planning: workplace communication, recruitment/promotion, induction, training, supervision, industrial relations, management of change, customer service, financial management and marketing.
Incorporating well-structured discussion, this book demonstrates an excellent balance of theory and practical application, and takes an innovative angle on the analysis of the host countries managers, undergoing culture shock. This volume will be useful to students across many disciplines including cross-cultural studies, international business and tourism.
What skill-development strategies should developing countries adopt to compete successfully in the international markets of the 21st century? This innovative new book provides a blend of theory and case studies which shed new light on this important question. It approaches the question from two angles. It considers, first, how skill development affects a country's international competitiveness and, secondly, what a government should do to develop a country's skills. It concludes that development of skills is necessary for a country to make the transition from primary exports to manufactures and from labour-intensive to skill-intensive manufacturing. For this purpose, it is argued an education system that recognizes the return to improvements in quality, and a training system that internalizes externalities and prevents market failure are needed. Issues explored include: the arguments for an activist skill-development policy (with particular emphasis on education of girls and women); the transition from cheap labour to skill-based competitiveness; human resources and structural adjustment; and different approaches to training for countries and enterprises at different levels of technological development. Skill Development for International Competitiveness will be of interest to academics, students and researchers in the fields of development studies, development economics, the economics of education and training and labour economics. Policymakers and planners responsible for policies on human resource development and employment and overall development strategy will also find this a vital source of information.
A key element in the development and competitiveness of businesses rest on the management and enhancement of `human resource'. Although it is a subject very much in vogue, the organisation of human resources is too rarely grounded in the relevant historical and comparative contexts which shape their practice. Furthermore, there is a need to counter the over-simplistic `one best way' views and management exhortation so common to this topic, and historical comparisons offer insight into the nature, scale and long-term impact of trends, whilst uncovering the complex interaction of differing circumstance and `optimum practice'. This important new two volume set presents key reading in paternalism and industrial welfare; employee relations and the professionalisation of management; Taylorism and flexibility: technological change and the division of labour; industrial training and skills; and labour and politics are covered in a theoretically informed and critical fashion.
This book illustrates the various facets of internationalization in managerial practice, starting with a strategic outline of the many options firms have when formulating internationalization strategies. Designed as a textbook for Bachelor, Master and MBA classrooms, the core of the book consists of six case studies on firms from diverse industries, such as sporting goods, aviation, grocery discount, motorcycle, computer and IT, and fast-food. The cases present a variety of ways of entering and operating in foreign markets, such as export, franchising, joint ventures, strategic alliances, greenfield-investments, acquisitions and mergers. In addition to market entry strategies, the cases provide readers, educators and students with insights into target market strategies, timing strategies, allocation strategies and coordination strategies of well-known companies.
Alan Rugman is recognized as one of the leading scholars in the field of international business and his ideas have been extremely influential. The Theory of Multinational Enterprises is the first of two volumes of Rugman's key contributions to the field of international business. The articles in this volume explore aspects of multinational enterprises and apply the theory of internalization to North America, Europe and Japan. Rugman's theoretical approach is extended further as the analysis is related to research on networks and strategic alliances. Included in this volume is a unique and compelling perspective on the development of the field of international business over the past twenty years. Rugman provides the reader with insights into both the intellectual and personal history of the papers. This book is considered vital reading for both academics and policy makers interested in the relationships between multinational enterprises and governments. Together with its companion volume, Multinational Enterprises and Trade Policy, it will improve acess to the work of Alan Rugman, one of the most influential scholars working on trade policy and the multinational enterprise.
Multinational Enterprises and Trade Policy comprises a selection of Alan Rugman's most important and influential articles on the multinational enterprise and government policy. This volume focuses on trade and investment policy as well as applications of the theory of internalization to government policy. Topics covered include: strategic trade policy, the `double diamond' framework, the `shelter' theory, the issue of foreign control, the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and NAFTA and recent contributions on business networks and competitiveness. Special attention is given to the role of multinational enterprises in Canada, Japan and Europe. This book will be essential reading for both academics and policymakers interested in the relationships between multinational enterprises and governments. Together with its companion volume, The Theory of Multinational Enterprises, it will improve access to the work of Alan Rugman, one of the most cited scholars working on the multinational enterprise.
The book contains 12 contributions that explain the current state of China's cruise industry and future development. Dating from the 1960s and with the rapid development of over 50 years, the modern cruise industry has developed into one of the fastest growing industries with the most remarkable economic benefits in the global tourism and hospitality industry, known as a "golden industry on the golden waterway". In recent years, with the gradual saturation of international cruise market and the eastward-moving trend of the center of cruise market, China has become a strategic emerging market with which international cruise lines have been competing. A number of international cruise lines, including Costa Crociere, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Princess Cruises, MSC Cruises, Star Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line and Dream Cruises, have entered the cruise market in Mainland China.
The world is undergoing enormous change involving politics, the
economy and society, however the position and place of the state
and the significance of state policy in this process is heavily
contested. "Globalisation, State and Labour "presents a timely
opportunity to review and re-assess the modern state in regard to
Shipping has been the international business par excellence in many national economies, one that preceded trends in other, more highly visible sectors of international economic activity. Nevertheless, in both business or economic history, shipping has remained relatively overlooked. That gap is filled by this exploration of the evolution of European shipping through the study of two Greek shipping firms. They provide a prime example of the regional European maritime businesses that evolved to serve Europe's international trade and, eventually, the global economy. By the end of the twentieth century, Greeks owned more ships than any other nationality. The story of the Vagliano brothers traces the transformation of Greek shipping from local shipping and trading to international shipping and ship management, while the case of Aristotle Onassis reveals how international shipping was transformed into a global business.
Globalization: A Multi-Dimensional System provides an invaluable introduction to the complex phenomenon of globalization. Evoking praise from some for facilitating trade and reducing poverty, yet blamed by others for causing job losses and cultural homogenization, it is important to understand the impacts of globalization for both individuals and organizations to be prepared and able to operate in its context. With updated chapters, this new edition of Globalization: * Tells the story of globalization, knitting perspectives together, and presenting current debates in the context of a `thinking manager', considering the impacts for the individual and the organization * Provides a framework using systems analysis to aid understanding of globalization as comprised of five interlinking domains; economic, social, political, physical, and business * Includes up-to-date discussions of major events with global implications; from Britain's departure from the EU to the increasing role of China as a key international decision maker * Embellishes the text with important definitions and concepts in each chapter, as well as an explanation of the systems perspective on the subjects covered. With its up-to-date coverage of the topic, and its accessible style, Globalization is an excellent resource for business and management students, as well as for practitioners seeking a concise overview of globalization from a theoretical perspective.
In an age of intense international competition, enterprises, regions and nations depend on their organizational capabilities to gain competitive advantage in global markets. This volume brings together critical scholarly contributions to historical and contemporary debates over the origins and characteristics of organizational capabilities that result in competitive advantage. Included are case studies drawn from textiles, chemicals, automobiles, computers and agriculture that illustrate how organizational capabilities generate sustained competitive success. In a new introduction, the editors, who have themselves been in the forefront of analysing the dynamics of innovation and industrial development, provide a state-of-the-art survey of the subject.
Direct foreign investment by transnational corporations is of increasing importance for developing nations and has major implications for legislators, policymakers and business leaders. The State and Transnational Corporations is one of the first books to show how transnational corporations build contacts with various levels of government to legitimize their operations in a country and obtain favourable decisions. Using data and figures from detailed interviews with transnational corporation executives, the authors examine the strategies transnational corporations pursue towards governments, how the two interact, on what issues and at which levels, and how these contacts are developed and maintained. Through the exchange of information and favours, transnational corporations - often using local agents - are shown to be able to develop stable and trustworthy relationships with governments. The strong theoretical structure used in this study, drawing on both the network approach and institutionalist theory, emphasizes the cooperative nature of this relationship. Researchers and students of international business, international marketing and international relations, as well as government officials and policymakers, will welcome the rigorous, empirical approach of this volume with its emphasis on the cooperative nature of state-corporate relations.
Developing BRIC markets are changing the business models of traditional western technology leaders. Classic business strategies are no longer suitable for companies attacking abroad whilst defending their market at home. Based on real-life cases, the book evaluates the best new strategies for western companies in technology-based B2B markets.
Introduce students to success in global business today with strategic approach and unique coverage found in GLOBAL BUSINESS, 2E, International Edition. Written by renowned international instructor, author, and consultant Mike Peng, GLOBAL BUSINESS, International Edition is the first truly global global business book to answer the big question, "What determines the success and failure of firms around the globe?" This edition blends both an institutional-based view and resource-based view throughout every chapter for an unparalleled continuity in the learning process. The book combines an inviting, conversational style with the latest research and examples throughout every chapter, including the impact of the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. A comprehensive set of cases from Mike Peng and other respected international experts examine how companies throughout the world, including Brazil's Embraer, China's Hauwei, and India's Tata Motors, have expanded globally. All-new video cases, world maps, and unique global debate sections that draw students into cutting-edge discussions help readers view business challenges from a truly global perspective. GLOBAL BUSINESS, 2E, International Edition's comprehensive package, including the CengageNOW course management system, helps you teach students to become savvy, effective managers within today's global business landscape.
The essays in this volume have been chosen to illustrate the diversity of scholarship which has been directed towards understanding the complex process of technology transfer in its business contexts. The first part considers the theory and process of technology transfer as developed by economists, sociologists and historians. The remainder of the volume presents essays and excerpts on the agencies of technology transfer, artisans and professionals, the state, private business and multinational enterprise. The papers range from the 18th century to the present and cover industries from coal and textiles to computers and motor vehicles, in countries as diverse as Britain, the US, Japan, South Korea and India.
Until relatively recently, it was the domestic perspective of
business which was the driving force behind information technology
applications. But in the age of globalization, there is an
increasing need for IT to be more 'global friendly'.
How do patents affect innovation in Mainland China and Hong Kong? How can two patent systems operate within one country and how is innovation affected by the 'one country two systems' model? For the first time, this book links these challenging issues together and provides a comprehensive overview for government officials, law-makers, academics, law practitioners and students to understand the patent systems of Mainland China and Hong Kong. Themes examined include the interaction between the two distinctive patent regimes, the impact of patents on innovation in China's specific industries such as green tech, traditional Chinese medicines and telecommunications, the role of utility models in inflating low-quality patents and the application of good faith principle in enforcing FRAND in Mainland China, patent system reforms in Hong Kong, and the impact of these changes on innovation in the two vastly distinctive yet closely connected jurisdictions.
China presents us with a conundrum. How has a developing country with a spectacularly inefficient financial system, coupled with asset-destroying state-owned firms, managed to create a number of vibrant high-tech firms? China's domestic financial system fails most private firms by neglecting to give them sufficient support to pursue technological upgrading, even while smothering state-favoured firms by providing them with too much support. Due to their foreign financing, multinational corporations suffer from neither insufficient funds nor soft budget constraints, but they are insufficiently committed to China's development. Hybrid firms that combine ethnic Chinese management and foreign financing are the hidden dragons driving China's technological development. They avoid the maladies of China's domestic financial system while remaining committed to enhancing China's domestic technological capabilities. In sad contrast, China's domestic firms are technological paper tigers. State efforts to build local innovation clusters and create national champions have not managed to transform these firms into drivers of technological development. These findings upend fundamental debates about China's political economy. Rather than a choice between state capitalism and building domestic market institutions, China has fostered state capitalism even while tolerating the importing of foreign market institutions. While the book's findings suggest that China's state and domestic market institutions are ineffective, the hybrids promise an alternative way to avoid the middle-income trap. By documenting how variation in China's institutional terrain impacts technological development, the book also provides much needed nuance to widespread yet mutually irreconcilable claims that China is either an emerging innovation power or a technological backwater. Looking beyond China, hybrid-led development has implications for new alternative economic development models and new ways to conceptualize contemporary capitalism that go beyond current domestic institution-centric approaches.
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