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Terutomo Ozawa examines Japan's once celebrated post-war economic success from a new perspective. He applies a `flying geese' model of industrial upgrading in a country that is still catching-up, to explore the rise, fall and rebound of Japanese industry with its evolving institutions and policies. The book brings together and expands upon theories developed in the author's work over many years, using them as building blocks for his flying geese model. Concepts explored include: * economics of hierarchical concatenation, increasing factor incongruity, comparative advantage (or market) recycling * the Ricardo-Hicksian trap of industrial production, Smithian growth elan, triumvirate pro-trade structural transformation * knowledge creation versus knowledge diversion, the price-knowledge/industry-flow mechanism `a la David Hume' * the syndrome of institutional incongruity, and socially justifiable moral hazard versus degenerative moral hazard. The dynamic process of industrial upgrading is analysed in detail, and important lessons for both developing and transition economies are highlighted. This fascinating book will attract a wide-ranging readership, encompassing practitioners and academics interested in international business, economic development, trade, and political science. In addition, sociologists focussing on business and industry, and researchers on, and policymakers in, developing and transition economies will also find this book of immense interest.
Your Passport to International Business Etiquette
The most authoritative and comprehensive text of its kind, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" is your must-have guide to proper international business protocol. With countries such as China and India taking on a more significant role in the global business landscape, you can't afford not to know the practices, customs, and philosophies of other countries.
Now fully revised, updated, and expanded with over sixty country profiles, "Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, 2nd Edition" provides invaluable information on how to handle common business interactions with grace, respect, and an appreciation for different cultures.
While public relations practice has become increasingly globalized, scholars are still behind in theorizing about the intersections of culture, communication, and power at this level of practice. This volume emphasizes theories and concepts that highlight global interconnectedness through a range of interpretative and critical approaches to understanding the global significance and impacts of public relations. Providing a critical examination of public relations' contribution to globalization and international power relations, the chapters included here explore alternative paradigms, most notably interpretive and critical perspectives informed by qualitative research. The volume encourages alternative `ways of knowing' that overcome the shortcomings of positivist epistemologies. The editors include multiple paradigmatic approaches for a more complex understanding of the subject matter, making a valuable contribution toward widening the philosophical scope of public relations scholarship. This book will serve well as a core text in classes in international public relations, global public relations, and advanced strategic public relations. Students as well as practitioners of public relations will benefit from reading the perspectives included here.
Craig Julian argues that the International Joint Venture (IJV) phenomena represents two opposing trends. On the one hand, an analysis of the number of new IJVs reveals that they are becoming increasingly popular as a mode of overseas market entry and expansion. On the other hand, however, the significance of a robust growth trend is overshadowed by the incidence of high failure. The book examines the factors influencing the marketing performance of IJVs in South East Asia, including market characteristics, conflict, commitment, product characteristics, marketing orientation, control, trust, partner's contributions and partner's needs. A unique composite measure incorporating financial, strategic and perceptual tools is used to determine the marketing performance of IJVs, and directions for future research are provided. Managers are then guided in better managing and improving the success of their IJVs, and the importance of top management team composition to IJV performance is also highlighted. International Joint Venture Performance in South East Asia provides the most comprehensive list of references on joint venture academic research to date with 60 pages of references on joint venture research. As such, this book will be invaluable to both academics and practitioners with an interest in international business research and the management of IJVs.
In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the way corporate innovation activities are performed. They include changes in the innovation process, flexibility to outsource certain innovation activities, and by far, the most important one, wider choice in the location of innovation. What caught the most attention of is the trend towards globalization of research and development (R&D) and thereby performance of innovation activities away from the home countries. The main concerns relate to the two new trends: First, the multinational corporations (MNCs) locating strategic innovation activities in some countries outside the industrialized world, which can be referred to as `emerging economies'; and Second, since 2000, some companies from the emerging economies have started entering the global markets with innovative products and services, developed through their own R&D. Both these new developments have managerial implications for companies and policy implications for the host countries (where such R&D is performed), as well as for the home countries of the companies. Further, innovative products and services resulting from R&D activities in emerging economies seem to better address the needs of consumers at the bottom-of-the-pyramid in other developing countries. This book explores and analyzes these issues. This research presented in Global Innovation in Emerging Economies is applicable to both the industrialized and developing worlds, although from different perspectives - the former would like to prevent relocation of R&D from their countries, and the latter want more of R&D-related investments.
This book offers an important contribution to the contemporary debate on the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in economic development in an increasingly globalizing, knowledge-intensive and alliance-based world economy. Each of the chapters touches upon critical issues now facing the global economy. They also address the growing importance of innovative activities of firms in promoting economic development and industrial restructuring, as well as the role of FDI and cooperative agreements in furthering this goal. Emphasis is placed on the increasingly significant role of national governments in promoting the intellectual capital of their indigenous resources and capabilities, and of inter-firm collaborative alliances. Globalization and technological advances are reconfiguring the ingredients of the competitiveness of firms and nation states. They are emphasizing the increasingly important role of both private and social institutions as determinants of the success of corporations and of the economic development of societies. Covering a range of issues from economic development, alliance capitalism, government policies, regional integration and industrial development, this authoritative book will greatly appeal to academics and economists, especially those interested in international business and management.
Mini-set D: Politics re-issues works originally published between 1920 & 1987 and examines the government, political system and foreign policy of Japan during the twentieth century.
With interest in the global environment and the management of ?talent? increasing, understanding the issue of global careers is crucial for students and managers alike.
This exciting book captures broad research extending to a large set of diverse motivations, experiences, and outcomes of international work in global ?for profit? and ?not for profit? organizations and delivers nuanced insights into the management of international employees for firms and governmental/non-governmental organizations.
This text covers global career issues in-depth, working at the intersection of career and international human resource management and using a number of perspectives, such as organizational or individual ones. Chapters include:
Illustrated with up to the minute case studies from companies such as Pepsi, Imperial Tobacco, Cadbury Schweppes, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Philips, HSBC, Misys, Philip Morris International and Masterfoods, Global Careers is essential reading for all those studying or concerned with career management, human resource management and international business.
President Nixon's new economic policy of August 1971, aggravated by the oil problem since October 1973 caused chaos and uncertainty in the international trade and currency system. There were fears of another 1930s style depression. In addition, a world food shortage and strident claims by developing countries for perpetual sovereignty over resources added another set of difficulties. This volume, written from Japan's standpoint, suggests a new direction for the world and regional economic order. The book tackles two major issues in international economics: Firstly, traditional international trade theory aims only at static maximization in the use of world human and material resources, but, the author stresses more attention should be paid to such dynamic or developmental elements as population growth, immigration, natural resource development, improvement in transfer of technology, economies of scale, direct foreign investment and economic integration in order to create development centres or sectors in the world economy. Secondly, the author discusses how to combine a global and regional approach to economic integration.
This volume concentrates on the effect of Japanese trade competition on the UK and Europe, it also provides an illuminating picture of political, social and military conditions in Japan in the early twentieth century.
The Japanese way of work is notoriously `different'. But is it Japan or Britain which is the odd man out? When originally published this was the first book to explore the real differences, through a point-by-point comparison of two Japanese factories with two British ones making similar products. In the first half of the book this comparison is pursued in systematic detail and clear illustration of the attitudes and assumptions which underlie what the author calls the `market-oriented' system of Britain and the `organization-oriented' system of Japan. One chapter shows how the employment institutions of the two countries fit into their political, family and educational institutions - an exercise in functionalist sociology which dominates t he later chapters and makes a major contribution to the discussion of development and of the `convergence' of different systems.
International entrepreneurship as a field of study is not necessarily confined to the internationalisation phenomenon, and recently advanced definitions suggest significant scope for the development and establishment of, as yet, undetermined parameters. Emerging Paradigms in International Entrepreneurship identifies key themes that collectively demonstrate the convergence of thinking at the interface between the disciplines of international business and entrepreneurship. These are: * development of the field and the effects of international entrepreneurship on a new economy * conceptual and paradigmatic developments * international entrepreneurship and the internet as a developing research agenda * contacts links and networks as process driven internationalisation * cross-sectoral, cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons of entrepreneurship * the experiential emphasis in entrepreneurial internationalisation. Explaining the complexities of enterprise in an international and sometimes global environment, this book is distinguished by the cross-disciplinary nature of its contributors and their efforts to develop new paradigmatic approaches in an area characterised by theoretical diversity and convergence. Appealing to researchers, academics and policymakers working in international business - particularly the international growth and development of small firms - and for entrepreneurship and small firm scholars this book is a must-have. Lecturers and students on post-graduate programmes would also be interested in the book as a reader.
Business takes place in an increasingly global environment,
crossing political and cultural boundaries that challenge corporate
values. The central focus of this successful and innovative text
lies in how to make and explain 'best choice' judgments when
confronting ethical dilemmas in international business
To keep pace with the changing landscape of global business, this new edition features:
The continued globalization of business increases the relevance
of this textbook and its unique focus on specifically international
ethical challenges faced by business, where governments and civil
society groups play an active role. While most business ethics
texts continue to focus heavily on ethical theory, this textbook
condenses ethical theory into applied decision-making concepts,
emphasizing practical applications to real world dilemmas.
Multinational Enterprises, Innovative Strategies and Systems of Innovation explores the extent to which multinational enterprises (MNEs) are decentralising the creation of new technological capabilities to various different countries. The book contends that technological strategies and innovation activities undertaken by firms are a critical part of the increasing internationalisation of economic activity, and that MNEs are the main actors for these changes. It goes on to explain that MNEs must now effectively manage new technological assets in order to cope with extensive changes in the nature of international competition. Experts from a network of thirteen European countries attempt to promote a better understanding of tendencies towards a new international dynamic of technology creation and diffusion. The contributors to the book then explore the factors determining the process of decentralisation and the resulting consequences for national systems of innovation. This thorough and easily accessible analysis of new trends in the technological strategies of MNEs and their implications for national systems of innovation will be of enormous interest to those specialising in the internationalisation of the economy or the economic analysis of technical change. In addition, the book will provide an excellent source of background information for policymakers when drafting new policies, and for corporate decision-making in the private sector.
This edited work attempts to ?make sense? of recent developments in the field of Human Resource Management in the People's Republic of China. It attempts to see how the paradoxes and contradictions engendered by contemporary Chinese society are being resolved in the enterprises and workplaces of the Middle Kingdom. The book starts with an overview of the literature, then follows with a selection of micro-oriented, concerned with topics like recruitment and retention, then macro-oriented empirical studies, a number of the latter dealing with strategic as well as performance issues, with last, those comparing sets of societal cultural values. It attempts a synthesis of what has emerged from recent research on the ?harmonious society?.
These contributions from authors based in universities in eight countries, in Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, United Kingdom and USA, cover a wide range of research on HRM, from the micro- to the macro-. Six of them teach and/or research at campuses on the Mainland. Their empirical, field-based research covers the last half-decade and presents a robust picture of both what practitioners have adopted and how researchers have tried to ?make sense? of what they have investigated.
This book was based on a special issue of Intl Journal of Human Resource Management.
Moving Towards the Virtual Workplace provides the first comprehensive overview of the many impacts of telework/telecommuting adoption, from both a managerial and societal perspective. This book argues that telework will be increasingly adopted in the twenty-first century, representing a far-reaching move toward the virtual workplace, with dramatic implications for the management of the workforce and for society at large. Telework, like mass production, has the potential to change society. It permits the significant reduction of the spatial and temporal constraints faced by the conventional organization of the workplace. The new virtual workplace constitutes a key step in the evolution towards a virtual society. In order to realistically assess telework's diffusion potential, the book studies, both conceptually and empirically, the technological, institutional, organizational and individual-level parameters that influence the decision to adopt telework, and the likelihood of telework's success. The book concludes that telework can have enormous socioeconomic impacts, both as a macro-level tool, reducing road transport externalities, and as a managerial instrument to motivate highly skilled workers in knowledge-based industries. As such this fascinating book will be invaluable to scholars of management, transport, economics and industrial and union relations. The telework and business community, both scholarly and practical will also find the book of great interest.
Changing attitudes, living patterns and technologies are
transforming our relationship with work in such fundamental ways
that tomorrow's workplace will be barely recognizable to that of
our parents. To help us make sense of these changes Richard Donkin
has examined the forces and themes that are influencing what
amounts to a silent revolution in social behavior. Donkin argues
that this change is creating a watershed in working lives as
significant as that of the factory system that heralded the
Industrial Revolution. Unless we understand these forces, he warns,
policies may be poorly fitted to meet the challenges ahead posed by
environmental change and shrinking oil reserves.
The diffusion of work processes across countries through foreign direct investment and technological collaborations is an increasingly important practice in today's global economy. Ayse Saka explores this process both by focusing on the role of actors in appropriating different ways of operating and by examining the effects of the institutional environment in the host country. The author uses the example of Japanese firms operating in the UK to explore how the diffusion of work systems occurs in practice. She finds that institutional, organisational and group characteristics, have great influence on the degree to which Japanese work systems are put to practice and accepted by UK adopter companies. The degree to which alternative work systems are accepted depends in part on the flexibility of the institutional setting and on social patterns of interaction in organisations. This unique and original book will appeal to a wide-ranging audience, including researchers, lecturers and scholars specialising in management studies in human resource management, industrial relations, organisational behaviour and international operations management. Cross-National Appropriation of Work Systems will also be invaluable to management practitioners and policymakers.
Alliance Capitalism for the New American Economy advocates engagement with the USA's macromanagement problems in a spirit of alliance capitalism, for the development of a more integrated, dynamic economy. Whereas most studies of the USA emphasise the efficiency effects of intense competition between firms, this book stresses that as the new economy becomes more knowledge based, its development necessitates active intercorporate cooperation, especially in high technology sectors. The book focuses on problems of balance between competition and cooperation in the relations between American firms, as well as in political competition and cooperation for the management of US economic policy. Public concern over the dynamics of the US political economy has increased since the dramatic disclosures during 2002 of high-risk speculation and fraud by major American enterprises. The authors argue that these problems reflect fierce competition, insufficiently restrained by monitoring and regulation. Imperatives for the development of a more cooperative, collegial style of capitalism are stressed. The authors also highlight the importance of technocratic contributions to the development of corporate alliances and address the increasing significance of working skill levels. This volume will provide valuable reading and reference material for all students, academics and researchers of business and competition policy. Corporate managers and government agencies involved in technology, trade, financial regulation and infrastructure development will also gain practical insights into the benefits of a more cooperative model of capitalism.
According to a recent study by the ILO (2001), women's share of the labour force is increasing worldwide. Today, women's participation rate in the labour force is over 40 per cent of the global workforce. Higher educational levels and falling fertility rates have contributed to this increased participation. There is also some evidence that women in some Asian countries may be less marginalised in their advancement into top managerial positions than their counterparts elsewhere. As women become more educated and qualified for managerial positions, the number of Asian women managers and executives is predicted to rise over the next decade. This book examines the opportunities and barriers for women managers in Asia and presents an update on their progress in management. This book was previously published as a special issue of the Asian Pacific Business Review.
This text frames the key areas of cross-cultural management and selects a mix of classic and modern readings. The two volumes cover conceptual and empirical articles which have shaped, and are redefining, the field.
John Dunning is undoubtedly the world's leading scholar on the subject of multinational corporations and international business. This collection of original essays is designed to honor this work, particularly his achievements during his association with Rutgers University. The contributors, most well known in the field in their own right, explore the many threads of Dunning's work, focusing on advances to his `eclectic paradigm', which looks at the interactions between ownership, location and internalization in explaining foreign direct investment by multinational firms. The book was also conceived and written to record Dunning's contribution to the creation of a doctoral program in International Business at Rutgers University at Newark. The coverage explores a range of topics and seeks to build on the eclectic paradigm or to apply it to existing problems. Scholars and students in international business will find this Festschrift an enlightening study of one person's contribution as well as an important advance in the literature on the eclectic paradigm.
Global economic progress in the twentieth century, while generally encouraging, was neither continuous nor uniform. With the exception of some Asian nations, countries that were more developed at the beginning of the twentieth century still rank amongst the wealthiest nations, while countries that were poorer, still lag behind. The distinguished authors in this volume address the fundamental causes for such heterogeneous international experiences, placing particular emphasis on the role of institutions. They demonstrate how the study of economic development is increasingly linked to the development of institutions, which allow for more complex exchanges to occur in markets and societies. Institutions can be understood as rules or constraints that channel individuals' actions in specific directions, and can be formal or informal depending on their genesis. The book highlights the connection between institutions and economic welfare by examining countries at different stages of development. Although the authors' study material effects, they also look at individual well-being which is more strongly influenced by the non-material products of institutions such as opportunity, freedom and relationships. They move on to highlight the role of institutions in global business, in terms of innovation, entrepreneurship and foreign direct investment. In the concluding chapters they focus on the actual process of transition from one institutional framework to another. Amongst other examples, they examine reforms to international financial institutions and constitutional adjustments in transition countries. This varied yet highly topical book will be invaluable to institutional and public-choice economists, students and researchers of the theory and policy of international business, and social and political scientists interested in the role and evolution of institutions.
The volume focuses on the issue of globalization of research and development (R&D) in China. China has become the number one choice of R&D for multination corporations (MNCs), according to a recent survey. Many of the largest MNCs in the world, such as Microsoft, GE, GM, HP, Motorola, and Lucent, among hundred of others, have established R&D facilities. The phenomenon has become a hot issue among policy debates in many countries regarding job outsourcing, national and regional competitiveness, and China. This book examines the issue of foreign R&D, particularly, those from MNCs in China: the drivers, missions, locations, management challenges, policies, and implications for China's innovation system. This book was previously published as a special issue of the Asia Pacific Business Review.
A unique and comprehensive source of information, this book is the only international publication providing economists, planners, policymakers and business people with worldwide statistics on current performance and trends in the manufacturing sector. The Yearbook is designed to facilitate international comparisons relating to manufacturing activity and industrial development and performance. It provides data which can be used to analyse patterns of growth and related long term trends, structural change and industrial performance in individual industries. Statistics on employment patterns, wages, consumption and gross output and other key indicators are also presented.
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