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This timely book represents the latest research on a selection of key issues in international business in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular the contributors examine the internationalisation process, export expansion and performance, foreign direct investment and the management of international business relationships. More specifically, they analyse: * the growth patterns of Danish and US companies developing operations in the region * the impact of the internet, the competitiveness of the Australian wine industry, and the development and application of export performance measures * the factors influencing the location decisions of Japanese Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and the investment risk perceptions of Australian MNEs * the multinational knowledge acquisition modes of Taiwanese electronics firms * the protection of intellectual property rights * the use of performance measures in international joint ventures * the human resource management practices of ethnic Chinese-owned enterprises compared to Anglo-American MNEs. This book will become a first point of reference for businesses in this region as well as scholars of international business and Asian studies.
How do business leaders think as a result of their national culture? This book provides a discussion and comparative analysis of five major cultures - American, Arab, Chinese, Japanese and Scandinavian - and how they reveal themselves in business practice. The author begins by introducing the concept of culture and why it is important, addressing issues such as values, beliefs and assumptions and the consequences of these. Bjorn Bjerke then goes on to address corporate culture and business strategy as well as some myths associated with national cultures. Looking at the five specific cultures he addresses cultural themes and presents a typified picture of the business leader in each of these. He concludes that there are five different capitalist systems governing these cultures, and that the business leader plays a different role in each. Extending this discussion, the author questions whether the culture-free business leader exists and, if so, what the characteristics of such a person might be. Business Leadership and Culture will enlighten students, scholars and business people about the consequences of culture for international business and management.
The world's increasing integration through trade and the persistence of high unemployment in Europe, and other areas of the world, highlight the need to understand the implications of free trade for unemployment. Trade, Jobs and Wages analyses how employment levels and real wages are affected by international trade. Popular trade theory disregards the impact of free trade on the rate of unemployment, since it assumes full employment at the outset. By focusing on the determinants of the natural rate of unemployment, Professor Hoon places an emphasis on real, as opposed to monetary, factors in accounting for long term trends in wages and unemployment. The author examines the influence of trade on jobs and wages in different theoretical settings, including the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models as well as models exhibiting imperfect competition and scale economies. The influence of trade on high wage jobs and wage inequalities is also discussed.
This major book provides a new understanding of systems of corporate governance, notably in the USA, Japan and the EU. It discusses how governance influences corporate cultures and strategies, particularly in response to the effects of deepening integration in the world economy. These effects present challenges for governments, obliging them to focus increasingly on problems of the management of structural and foreign trade policies. Challenges in international financial markets also have to be confronted by policymakers as industries are funded more and more through cross-border investments, which reflect the responses of systems of corporate governance to globalization. The book links studies of corporate governance with surveys of efficiencies and failures in international financial markets, as well as examining aspects of corporate governance systems that have special significance for the management of economic policies as globalization continues. The contributors advocate increased international cooperation to promote more structural complementarities in the world economy.
This is the only ranking of this kind focussed upon humanitarian response. There have been a growing number of natural disasters and conflicts. This report aims to reduce vulnerability to disasters by measuring the effectiveness of humanitarian aid. This title expects wide publicity and press coverage: DARA aim to raise awareness of the increasingly important role of humanitarian action, and the report will be launched with Kofi Annan in Geneva and during the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) meeting in New York. This will be an annual report to allow tracking of trends and progress.The purpose of this annual report is to develop an index of good humanitarian donorship that will measure donors' effectiveness against their commitment to the Principles and Good Practise of Humanitarian Donorship. The index is intended to help the international donor community to better understand its strengths and weaknesses in order to improve the efficiency and quality of its donor activities and initiatives.
The growth in global competitiveness and interdependence has led to an increased interest in the role of industrial policy in achieving economic growth objectives. Heather Smith reignites the contentious debate of the role of the state using East Asian economic development in general with particular emphasis on Taiwan and Korea. Using quantitive techniques, the author analyses the view that industry policy interventions were a necessary factor explaining Taiwan's economic performance in the 1980s. Lessons for other countries attempting to upgrade their industrial structure are drawn from the comparative industrialisation experience of Taiwan and Korea, along with: * a comprehensive discussion of strategic industry policy with an application to East Asia. * discussion on the impact of the 1997-1998 financial crisis in Korea * a critique of the structuralist/revisionist literature in the light of the financial crisis. This highly topical study constitutes essential reading for governmental and non-governmental policymakers, business leaders and academics alike.
This important and timely book is at the forefront of the increasing interest in regional competitiveness in the face of ever stronger global forces. Distinguished contributors discuss issues including the impact and implications of European expansion as well as developments in the Asia-Pacific region. They also examine the driving forces, backgrounds, obstacles and opportunities for regions to become powerful global players. This highly topical book contains a wealth of empirical material and is underpinned by a thorough investigation of the theory and methodology of policy strategies for the positioning of regions in the new global economy. It will be a major source of reference for scholars, policymakers, economic planners and institutions alike in the field of regional science.
How do business leaders think as a result of their national culture? This book provides a discussion and comparative analysis of five major cultures - American, Arab, Chinese, Japanese and Scandinavian - and how they reveal themselves in business practice. The author begins by introducing the concept of culture and why it is important, addressing issues such as values, beliefs and assumptions and the consequences of these. Bjoern Bjerke then goes on to address corporate culture and business strategy as well as some myths associated with national cultures. Looking at the five specific cultures he addresses cultural themes and presents a typified picture of the business leader in each of these. He concludes that there are five different capitalist systems governing these cultures, and that the business leader plays a different role in each. Extending this discussion, the author questions whether the culture-free business leader exists and, if so, what the characteristics of such a person might be. Business Leadership and Culture will enlighten students, scholars and business people about the consequences of culture for international business and management.
Business firms from the emerging markets of Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America are becoming increasingly important players in the global economy. Owned and controlled by indigenous nations these emerging transnational corporations are greatly influenced by the social and institutional contexts of their home countries. As a result of the process of globalization, these corporations are engaged in a diverse range of international operations including the establishment of wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries, to joint ventures and strategic alliances. This authoritative collection sheds new light on the global and regional operations of business firms from emerging markets and shows how the pressures of the competitive global economy help shape the management and organisation of these firms. The Globalization of Business Firms from Emerging Economies presents a comprehensive and authoritative selection of the most important articles and papers on this subject published during the last twenty five years. Drawing on a wide range of sources, it will improve access to an important literature which is crucial to the understanding of a significant new area of international business. The collection will be of particular interest to students, researchers, scholars and practitioners involved in international business, industrial economics and economic geography.
Choosing the right location for a business can assure its success, and avoid costly problems. Location, Location, Location examines this foundational aspect of business profitability, and outlines the principles and procedures necessary to identify an optimal site. This practical book offers advice on how to invest wisely on real estate to minimize risks, and maximize returns. This concise guide by Marcel De Meirleir, a leading site consultant with over fifty years of professional practice, explains how to measure the positive and negative attributes of a site. Its useful and accessible format includes anecdotes, cases studies, and tools for evaluating and selecting sites for different kinds of facilities like headquarters, warehouses, call centers, among others. Other topics in Location, Location, Location include: Analysis of critical and intangible factors Taxes and tax incentives Industrial location and ecology Location feasibility studies The BERI rating Infrastructure Costs analysis, and much more! Location, Location, Location is an authoritative and valuable resource for business owners, decision makers, and consultants who wish to find, expand, or relocate their facilities. This comprehensive volume also provides strategies for regional government officials seeking to attract investments in their area.
This highly accessible book explains the theoretical, historical and political background of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), its impact and the debates surrounding its existence. In addition the authors provide a brief introduction to the theory of economic integration as well as a succinct overview of the evolution of the global economy, and the institutions that manage it, in the post World War II period. Key issues examined include: * how and why NAFTA emerged in the early 1990s and its performance since implementation * the economic development and commercial policy of each member country in the context of the rapidly changing global economy * NAFTA's technical strengths and limitations * the debates which still rage between its proponents and critics The team of US, Canadian and Mexican authors argue that while NAFTA has introduced novel social and environmental innovations in trade agreements, given Mexico's macroeconomic volatility, it provides a less than perfect approach for managing North America's rapidly expanding economic integration. North American Economic Integration can be used by a wide audience from students to professionals and academics from any discipline with an understanding of the basic principles of economics. Specifically, the book will be welcomed by students of international economics, political economy and international relations.
The volume focuses on the issue of globalization of research and development (R&D) in China. China has become the number one choice of R&D for multination corporations (MNCs), according to a recent survey. Many of the largest MNCs in the world, such as Microsoft, GE, GM, HP, Motorola, and Lucent, among hundred of others, have established R&D facilities. The phenomenon has become a hot issue among policy debates in many countries regarding job outsourcing, national and regional competitiveness, and China. This book examines the issue of foreign R&D, particularly, those from MNCs in China: the drivers, missions, locations, management challenges, policies, and implications for China's innovation system. This book was previously published as a special issue of the Asian Pacific Business Review.
The Pacific is a high growth region, comprising East Asian market economy states, North America, China, Australia and New Zealand. This book examines the area's rapidly expanding pattern of corporate competition and cooperation, which is assisting recoveries from the effects of the East Asian financial crises. The authors argue that the uneven but dynamic integration in the Pacific region which was disrupted by the financial crises is continuing in ways that promise resumptions of higher interdependent growth when fundamental adjustments have been completed. They emphasize that the regional recovery could be assisted by innovative new efforts to promote wider ranging cooperation in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC), which is committed to regional trade and investment liberalization over the next decade.
Foreign capital has played a fundamental role in China's development and economic reconstruction during the past two decades. China is now the world's second largest host for foreign direct investment, outside the United States. This important new book, by a distinguished group of contributors, offers insights into the impact of foreign investment on China's growth and regional economic development. The book features: * an examination of China's investment policy * an analysis of the most recent industrial surveys * case studies from selected regions * applications of modern econometric techniques to data on foreign direct investment in China Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in China will be of interest to those working in the areas of international business, finance and international economics as well as Asian development and Chinese economic studies.
This important two volume collection of previously published journal articles and book excerpts provides an extensive array of readings in the economics and politics of international trade and investment policy. Volume One focuses on the globalization of business and links policy issues to economic and political theory and to the strategies of corporations. Volume Two concentrates on multilateral institutions and agreements, regional arrangements and linkages among trade, investment, labour and environmental policy issues. The articles included in this collection have been drawn from diverse sources and represent analyses by scholars of many persuasions and nationalities.
This important book focuses on the impact of home countries on the international competitiveness of transnational corporations (TNCs). It seeks to explain the geographic concentration of the most internationally competitive TNCs in a single or very few countries, and their uneven performance at these concentration points. The theoretical framework for this analysis is based on a link between the location advantages of countries and the ownership advantages of firms. The book focuses on professional service TNCs as the competitive advantages of these firms are based entirely on intangible, often mobile assets, and they thus provide a striking illustration for the ways in which such assets shape the competitiveness of firms. Analyses of TNCs in several professional service industries based in various countries reveal the dynamic balance between the home and the foreign countries in which the TNCs operate, as well as the combination of country- and firm-specific attributes in shaping the competitiveness of TNCs and the subsequent patterns of global competition. The Origins of the International Competitiveness of Firms extends our knowledge of the determinants of the international competitiveness of TNCs, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international business and business strategy, and to those working in the fields of international competition, trade and investment.
International technology transfer has been an essential element of the `catching up' process in developing countries over the last thirty years. This book reappraises its role in economic development in light of the globalization of the world economy. The author provides an excellent overview and historiography of technology transfer mechanisms. He then discusses the new technology transfer issues, particularly `sourcing', which have emerged as a result of increasing globalization. International Technology Transfer and Catch-up in Economic Development significantly improves our understanding of how developing economies and economies in transition could approach technology transfer policy in an increasingly globalized and open economic environment.
This book brings together a carefully edited selection of new and previously published articles by P.J. Lloyd on the opening of national economies to international trade and investment, and the formation of a truly global economy. It illustrates the major changes to the world trading system and international economy that have emerged as a result of the liberalization of trade and investment during the last few decades. The essays combine theoretical analysis with empirical research on trends in the global economy. Along with a biographical introduction, the book features new introductions to each of the parts on protectionism, trade liberalization, investment and trade in the Asia-Pacific and intra-industry trade. The book presents a unified treatment of trends at national, regional and multilateral levels, as well as discussing the recent Asian crises. This book will be welcomed by those interested in the developments which have led to the `opening-up' of the global economy in recent decades as well as international trade specialists, those in government and international organizations, and growth and development economists.
This project is distinctive in that it really is a `Who's Who' rather than a directory of all scholars engaged in international business education and research. It develops a select sample of 150 leading scholars and practitioners extracted from a sample of at least 1200 in the field. The sample is drawn from the use of multiple selection criteria reflecting research productivity, citational analysis, executive officers and fellows of the AIB, management of US-based CIBERS and peer-based nominations. These indicators highlight contributions that expand the frontiers of research and also recognize contributions to professional and institutional development. The compilation is also distinctive in that it allows respondents to offer a personal statement on the principal contributions they have made to the field of international business. The main listing in the book is alphabetic by name and the information is indexed for ease of reference. The volume serves as a central reference in the field of international business, and is an indispensable guide to academic, government and business communities.
A Basic Guide to International Business Law is an introduction to those parts of European and international law that are relevant to business. Having read this book, students will come away with a broad understanding of the international rules of law within the EEC, institutional rules of the European Union, international contract law, rules of competition and the four freedoms within the EEC.
The edition includes student friendly features, such as summaries of statements and references to relevant case law, making the book an ideal introduction for those on law and/or business programmes.
This book is an authoritative collection of the most important published articles on key issues in securities markets including market design, the sources of the bid ask spread, and the short term movement of prices. The articles trace the development of this relatively new field of market microstructure while at the same time reflecting the latest ideas. At a time when securities markets are undergoing dramatic change, this two volume set provides important guidance to students, users and regulators of securities markets.
This innovative book analyses the geographical patterns in foreign direct investment flows by combining elements from the theory of international production and the theory of economic geography. It develops a model for explaining why foreign direct investment is attracted to certain locations. The book examines foreign direct investment from a spatial perspective and considers how knowledge, regional synergies, economic integration, corporate strategies and networking affect patterns of investment. Using a model, Robert Morsink derives sets of determinants for different foreign direct investment patterns of multinationals and evaluates the corporate strategy behind these flows. First, he analyses investment flows within the European Union. Then, he goes into investments originating from the United States, Japan, Germany and the Netherlands and destined for Western Europe, South and Southeast Asia and North and South America. These analyses enable him to make suggestions for government policy at both the national and international level to attract foreign investment. Foreign Direct Investment and Corporate Networking will be of interest to economists working in the areas of international trade and investment, economic geographers and corporate strategy advisors as well as to policymakers from government and non-governmental organizations.
This important book provides an exhaustive analysis of the strategic responses of transnational firms to current trends in the world economy, specifically the trends towards `globalization' and `regionalization'. The primary focus of this book is on the strategy of transnational firms, particularly those from East Asia, in the geographical regions of Europe, North America and Asia, including the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the ASEAN Free Trade Area. The contributors discuss protectionism and trade agreements, strategic alliances, competitiveness and investment strategy towards Eastern European states and compare business strategies in the triad region. The distinguished contributors are from industry, academia and international organizations and have first-rate, detailed knowledge of the issues raised. Their approach is policy-oriented and they use case studies of Toshiba, Toyota, Samsung and the Notebook PC Consortium to illustrate the investment strategies of East Asian firms. This book will offer insights to scholars and students seeking to understand East Asian and European firms, the topics of globalisation and regionalisation. It will also appeal to policymakers wishing to influence and understand the strategies of transnational firms.
International teams are rapidly becoming the central operating mode for global enterprises. They are often agile and perceptive, know local markets better than HQ does, lead innovation and exploratory ventures, and are more culturally aware than their parent company. But how much autonomy should they be allowed? How can we get things done with colleagues who have different worldviews? How can we strike a balance between core values and the necessary diversity - and is diversity within the team a strength or a hindrance? What is the role of the team leader in all of this? How do you establish team trust? How important is team humor? Who decides the team's ethics? What misunderstandings can arise in a virtual team, lacking face-to-face contact? In answering these and other questions, Richard D. Lewis draws on 30 years experience mediating with hundreds of international teams in two dozen countries. Generously illustrated with explanatory diagrams, When Teams Collide analyses profiles of 24 different nationalities and suggests how they should be led for best results. Commenting on vital considerations of leadership, team trust, ethics and humor, the author also evaluates the relationship between teams and HQ. Applying the cultural concepts in the bestselling When Cultures Collide specifically to team leadership, this is a wide-ranging and compelling account of how to handle what is a difficult and sensitive task.
The nature of Japanese firms has come under intense scrutiny because of their international success and their distinct structure, employee relations and working practices. This book sheds light on the reasons for promotion within firms, the distribution of power within companies, business management methods and the relationship between shareholders, executives and employees. The authors use empirical data from comprehensive surveys to support their research on the nature of Japanese business. They survey 1,816 white-collar employees in several large corporate enterprises, and 2,246 shareholder appointed board members in listed corporations. The authors' primary concern is to explain the prerequisites for promotion to middle management and executive positions. Many criteria are analysed, including the extent of desire for promotion, working style, lifestyle, the effect of university education including the name of the university, the level of education attained, the effect of university education including the name of the university and the degree subject, the economic incentive behind severe competition for promotion and the role of trade unions. The book also deals with issues of corporate governance and the role of the incentive system and examines the popularity of labour managed firms in Japan. This detailed work will be of great interest to economists, businessmen and students wanting to learn more about Japanese business.
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