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In 1980, SAGE published Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences. It opens with a quote from Blaise Pascal: "There are truths on this side of the Pyrenees that are falsehoods on the other." The book became a classic-one of the most cited sources in the Social Science Citation Index-and subsequently appeared in a second edition in 2001. This new SAGE Encyclopedia of Intercultural Competence picks up on themes explored in that book. Cultural competence refers to the set of attitudes, practices, and policies that enables a person or agency to work well with people from differing cultural groups. Other related terms include cultural sensitivity, transcultural skills, diversity competence, and multicultural expertise. What defines a culture? What barriers might block successful communication between individuals or agencies of differing cultures? How can those barriers be understood and navigated to enhance intercultural communication and understanding? These questions and more are explained within the pages of this new reference work. Key Features: 300 to 350 entries organized in A-to-Z fashion in two volumes Signed entries that conclude with Cross-References and Suggestions for Further Readings Thematic "Reader's Guide" in the front matter grouping related entries by broad topic areas Chronology that provides a historical perspective of the development of cultural competence as a discrete field of study Resources appendix and a comprehensive Index The SAGE Encyclopedia of Intercultural Competence is an authoritative and rigorous source on intercultural competence and related issues, making it a must-have reference for all academic libraries.
In pharmaceutical patent law, the problem of lack of policy direction and inappropriate legal framework is widespread - particularly among jurisdictions with little to no pharmaceutical research or manufacturing. This book aims to inform public policy and influence debate through a comprehensive review of Hong Kong's pharmaceutical patent law. By demonstrating the need for a holistic review of pharmaceutical patent laws and evaluating Hong Kong's system in light of health policy, economic and social factors, Bryan Mercurio recommends changes to the legal framework and constructs a more efficient and effective system for Hong Kong. He thoroughly evaluates the international framework and best practice models to offer a global perspective to each issue before providing local context in the analysis. While the focus of the book is Hong Kong, the analysis on pharmaceutical patent law and policy extends to other jurisdictions facing issues on reforming their national system.
This second edition explores and accounts for the many changes in the emerging markets of China and the Latin American countries since 2011. Taking account of major developments such as the rapid expansion of the Chinese state and the on-going effects of the global recession, the authors present current case studies and data on both Chinese and Latin American companies, including updates on those included in the first edition and the presentation of new innovative start-ups. Including an international relations perspective alongside business strategy and global markets, The China-Latin America Axis second edition presents the drastic changes in the globalized economy in the past five years.
Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts introduces readers to the fundamentals of cross-cultural management by exploring the influence of culture on interpersonal interactions in organizational settings and examining the ever-increasing number of cross-cultural challenges that global managers face in today's workplace. The Fourth Edition reflects the most current thinking on the topic and includes a series of new features including: Enhanced coverage of language issues, offering strategies for improving communication in multinational companies (Ch.6) New discussions about the relationship between immigration and international management (Ch. 11) Increased emphasis on understanding the mechanisms of cross-cultural interactions Best practices for transferring knowledge across cultures (Ch.9) Expanded coverage of cross-generational considerations (Ch.11) New and updated examples, statistics, discussion questions and references. The book is complemented by a companion website featuring a range of tools and resources for lecturers, including chapter-specific PowerPoint slides, and a Microsoft Word test bank containing multiple-choice, true/false, and open-ended questions for each chapter. Suitable reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking Change Management courses.
World class marketing experts, Nirmalya Kumar and Jan-Benedict
Steenkamp set out a cutting-edge plan for emerging market brands to
achieve success in international markets. Brand Breakout outlines
eight strategies - including the Asian tortoise route, from B2B to
B2C, brand acquisition and leveraging cultural resources - that
will take brands from domestic dominance to worldwide
triumphominance cultural resources rand will go global.kground
In less than thirty years, China has become a major force in the global economy. One feature of its rapid ascent has been an enormous expansion of the country's science and technology capabilities, leading to the emergence of a large and increasingly well-educated talent pool. Yet China finds itself engaged in an internal debate as to whether its full potential can be realised. At the heart of this debate lie a number of uncertainties surrounding the quality, quantity and effective utilisation of China's S&T workforce. Written by two leading experts in the field, this book is the first in forty years to address these critical issues. Building on exciting new research and a plethora of comprehensive statistical materials, its findings will have significant policy implications both for China and the international community, especially in terms of issues relating to national competitiveness and innovation potential.
In recent years, international business disputes have increasingly been resolved through private arbitration. The first book of its kind, Dealing in Virtue details how an elite group of transnational lawyers constructed an autonomous legal field that has given them a central and powerful role in the global marketplace.
Building on Pierre Bourdieu's structural approach, the authors show how an informal, settlement-oriented system became formalized and litigious. Integral to this new legal field is the intense personal competition among arbitrators to gain a reputation for virtue -- including expertise in international arenas -- that will lead to selection for arbitration panels. Since arbitration fees have skyrocketed, this is a high-stakes game.
Using multiple examples, Dezalay and Garth explore how international developments can transform domestic methods for handling disputes and analyze the changing prospects for international business dispute resolution given the growing presence of such international market and regulatory institutions such as the EEC, NAFTA, and the WTO.
In today's global village, every manager is a global manager. Even if your business is putatively 'local', with no sales abroad, you still probably face competitors in other countries. Smartonomics provides global managers with a simple, powerful set of macroeconomic tools, many of which have been until now rather opaque for non-economists, that empower them to think independently, swim against the tide (when warranted), and at times enter markets when everyone else is abandoning them. It will provide managers a holistic picture of the global marketplace and the systemic risks it conceals. Throughout this book, readers will find numerous case studies, illustrating how smart managers transform risk into opportunity, as well as numerous action learning exercises, to help readers test whether they understand the eight tools well enough to employ them and through them achieve important insights.
International trade, and its financing, is now a key component of many undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications. For anyone involved in international sales, finance, shipping and administration, or for those studying for academic or professional qualifications in international trade, The Handbook of International Trade and Finance offers an extensive and topical explanation of the key finance areas. This essential reference resource provides the information necessary to help you to reduce risks and improve cash flow, identify the most competitive finance alternatives, structure the best payment terms, and minimize finance and transaction costs. This fully revised and updated 4th edition of The Handbook of International Trade and Finance also describes the negotiating process from the perspectives of both the buyer and the seller, providing valuable insight into the complete financing process, and covering key topics such as: trade risks and risk assessment; structured trade finance; methods and terms of payment; currency risk management and bonds, guarantees and standby letters of credit. The Handbook of International Trade and Finance provides a complete and thorough assessment of all the issues involved in constructing, financing and completing a cross-border transaction, as an indispensable guide for anyone dealing with international trade. The new edition also includes a section on risk management, which plays an increasingly important role in international trade from currency fluctuations to political risk and natural disasters. N.B. This covers the principles of international trade and finance that are common across the globe and is relevant to anyone wanting to understand the subject, wherever they are located. Specific national issues (such as the UK's Brexit decision) do not affect the content. Online supporting resources include PowerPoint lecture slides.
This book highlights the role that national culture plays in shaping the emergent relationship between IT and organizations. It also shows the mechanisms through which national culture influences IT use. Although a number of studies have investigated relationships between IT and organizations, relatively few studies have conducted international comparisons on the theme, and even fewer have focussed on national culture in their analytical framework.
Many thought China's rise would fundamentally remake the global order. Yet, much like other developing nations, the Chinese state now finds itself in a status quo characterized by free trade and American domination. Through a cutting-edge historical, sociological, and political analysis, Ho-fung Hung details the competing interests and economic realities that temper the dream of Chinese supremacy-forces that are stymieing growth throughout the global South. Hung focuses on four common misconceptions: that China could undermine orthodoxy by offering an alternative model of growth; that China is radically altering power relations between the East and the West; that China is capable of diminishing the global power of the United States; and that the Chinese economy would restore the world's wealth after the 2008 financial crisis. His work reveals how much China depends on the existing order and how the interests of the Chinese elites maintain these ties. Through its perpetuation of the dollar standard and its addiction to U.S. Treasury bonds, China remains bound to the terms of its own prosperity, and its economic practices of exploiting debt bubbles are destined to fail. Hung ultimately warns of a postmiracle China that will grow increasingly assertive in attitude while remaining constrained in capability.
This is a detailed study of the extent to which an increased influx of foreign workers is a threat to law and order in the context of the data-generating process of police statistics and the media coverage of "crimes" committed by foreigners. It shows that a general mood in which foreign workers are viewed as potential danger to Japanese society "protects" the criminalization of foreign "illegal" migrant workers.
The work begins by tracing the upsurge of "illegal" foreign workers in Japan. It builds a social profile of these "illegals" showing that because of fear of expulsion, lack of knowledge of the law and over-dependence on employer and workplace, their ability to avail themselves off the protection of the law is neglible, and they are always at risk of becoming victims to multiple exploitation.
Japan has developed what is arguably the most sophisticated and the most democratic broadcasting system in the world. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1st September 1923, with its devastation and confusion drove home in its appalling way the importance of being able to broadcast immediate information to the public. The same year, the Ministry of Communications promptly established an administrative system to regulate broadcasting. In less than a decade over one million people were registered listeners. Under the post war Constitution of 1946 freedom of "speech and all other forms of expression" was guaranteed, and the subsequent Broadcast Law instituted a dual system of broadcasting with the public service Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) on the one hand, and commercial and private broadcasting organizations on the other. In 1978 there were ninety-one television broadcasting organizations and fifty-one radio broadcasting organizations. In this informative study, Professor Ito and his team comprehensively describe the staggering growth of broadcasting in Japan from the dawn or radio and television to satellite communication and through to the multiplex broadcasting of the future.
The majority of SMEs are operating in a networked business environment, and these networks extend beyond national and cultural boundaries. Within these networks, growth takes various routes and forms. Instead of linear, positive growth, international growth is often more cyclical, including periods of stagnation and withdrawal, even exits. International Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises focuses on international growth, such as how companies expand their operations across national borders through opportunity exploration and exploitation, and identification and development of innovations, i.e. on international entrepreneurship.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of international growth of small and medium-sized enterprises from diverse points of view. It verifies that SMEs in all parts of the globe share similar characteristics, but also differ significantly. New explanations emerge, such as ownership, steering of the company, or the negative consequences of international growth. It discusses how the changing external environment of SMEs pushes them to create innovative solutions in order to survive and succeed. This collection of new and international perspectives sheds much-needed light on how founders and management teams of SMEs can succeed in fostering the growth process, and what specific characteristics are instrumental in initiating and maintaining international growth.
The unique Japanese banking system has contributed greatly to Japan's post-war economic advance by investing aggressively in industry and by supporting close government-business relations. The banking sector might not have come to assume such a significant role, however, had American efforts to reform Japanese finance during the Occupation (1945-52) been successful. How Japan's banking system maintained continuity of development and avoided the occupiers' attempts at "democratisation" and "Americanisation" is the subject of this book. It explores why the Americans were committed to reform, the reasons they failed and how important the maintenance of the financial status quo was to the subsequent development of Japan's "miracle" economy.
This volume collects eleven essays written by Japanese experts on various aspects of Japanese business management and is a sequel to the volume Industry and Business in Japan. It examines the mechanisms for Japan's phenomenal economic growth since the Second World War by analyzing Japanese management, business groups, production systems and business strategy.
During the 1970s and '80s economic relations between the Arab Gulf States and Japan grew enormously. Approximately 65% of Japan's oil requirements were met from Arab Gulf resources. However, although Japanese imports of Arab oil comprise the major component of trade, Arab imports of Japanese goods are also increasing sharply. The seven Arab Gulf countries, represented by the Petroleum Information Committee accounted for 8% of Japan's total exports. This book explores the various avenues of economic co-operation that have developed between Japan and the Gulf States both in energy and other areas. It considers the measures that have been taken to protect the security of oil supply. It reports Japan's co-operation in the development of the petroleum industry in the Arab Gulf States. The book also examines the future prospects for economic, technological and political co-operation between Japan and the Arab Gulf States.
This volume analyzes Japan's industrial organization both from a historical perspective and by looking in details at specific industries such as iron, steel and the automotive industry. Big business, business groups and industrial policy are also discussed. The volume also provides a survey of the literature in Japanese which will help the reader in search of original sources.
This study looks at the experiences of European and American companies that have collaborated with their Japanese competitors in the fields of computers, consumer electronics, automobiles and aero-engines, by forming joint ventures, designing products together and pursuing complementary marketing strategies. It examines why these companies have chosen to collaborate rather than compete; whether the Japanese companies have proved to be reliable partners; whether the non-Japanese have been left behind; and what the future of such collaboration may be. The book concludes by pointing to a growing interest among non-Japanese companies in investing and collaborating within Japan itself.
Direct foreign investment and the activities of multinational corporations are new dynamic elements in the international economy. This book identifies, theoretically and practically, a Japanese model of multinational business operations which has characteristics differing from the American or "anti-trade oriented" type, and casts light on important policy implications concerning direct foreign investment and multinational corporations. By developing a macroeconomic approach to direct foreign investment, instead of the prevalent explanation from the viewpoint of business administration and industrial organisation, this study adds to current knowledge of the multinational corporation. It endeavours to bridge the gap of separated treatments between international trade and foreign investment, and presents an integrated theory from the viewpoint of a dynamic reorganisation in the international division of labour. The book also includes two introductory surveys on the survey of international division of labour and foreign investment.
Japan's rapid rise to economic super-power status has led to a worldwide interest in and attempts to emulate Japanese management practices. This book, based on extensive original research, considers both the opportunities and problems of the transfer of Japanese management practices to other areas in East Asia. It remains one of the few books of its kind, as other books on Japanese management have concentrated on its transferability to the West. Because many Japanese subsidiaries have been established longer in East Asia than elsewhere and the local work forces have become accustomed to Japanese management practices when transferred elsewhere have become apparent in a way they have not where Japanese management practices are much newer.
This new book investigates how the relationships of international business networks (one buyer-multiple suppliers) develop over time, looking at the geographical angle as well as an actor composition point of view.
Bart Kamp presents a framework that reveals what business-to-business (b2b) factors explain buyer-supplier co-location patterns, making it possible to predict the geographical behaviour of suppliers, and also assesses whether longevity is truly the deep-rooted feature of international b2b network relationships that it is often claimed to be.
This book is concerned with the role of financial intermediation in economic development and growth in the context of Malaysia. Using an analytical framework, the author investigates the Malaysian economy from 1960 onwards to examine how far financial development has progressed in the course of economic development, and whether it has been instrumental in promoting economic growth.
A significant improvement in the Malaysian financial system, coupled with rapid economic growth and a rich history of financial sector reforms, makes Malaysia an interesting case study for this subject. The author shows that some government interventions seem to have impacted negatively on economic growth, whereas repressionist financial policies such as interest rate controls, high reserve requirements and directed credit programmes seem to have contributed positively to financial development. The analysis concludes that financial development leads to higher output growth via promoting private saving and private investment.
Shedding light on the evolutionary role of financial system and
the interacting mechanisms between financial development and
economic growth, this book will be of interest to those interested
in economic and financial development, financial liberalization,
saving behaviour and investment analysis and Asian Studies.
Electronic Inspection Copy available for instructors here "A very timely book for students and managers related to business opportunities and risks inherent in emerging markets. Written by some of the foremost experts in international business, it is a comprehensive, practical and highly readable book." Jagdish N. Sheth, Charles H. Kellstadt Professor of Marketing, Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Atlanta, US There are many texts available on International Business, but only a few provide a comprehensive coverage of emerging markets, which now play a major role in global business and therefore require deeper study and analysis. This accessible and engaging text focuses solely on these markets and provides extensive coverage. BRICs and other major emerging markets are examined in-depth. Prominent topics regarding emerging markets such as effects of globalization, rise of disposable income, urbanization, economic reforms, new opportunities as well as characteristics of multinationals and domestic firms within such markets are discussed. Real life examples, detailed data and graphs provide a comprehensive framework for a thorough understanding. This fully revised and updated edition reflects the current issues, changes, challenges and opportunities facing businesses in emerging markets, including entry and negotiation processes, as well as risks and strategies. The text is accompanied by a companion website which includes full text articles for each chapter, answers to end of chapter questions, and detailed chapter slides for tutors. This text is essential reading for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students studying international business and emerging markets as well as practitioners who want to increase their understanding of such markets. Visit the Companion Webiste at www.sagepub.co.uk/cavusgil S. Tamer Cavusgil is Fuller E. Callaway Professorial Chair and Executive Director, CIBER, at Georgia State University, U.S Pervez N. Ghauri is a Professor of International Business at King's College London, UK Ayse A. Akcal is a Research Associate in International Business at King's College London, UK
Tourism is arguably one of the largest self-initiated commercial interventions to create well-being and happiness on the entire planet. Yet there is a lack of specific attention to the ways in which we can better understand and evaluate the relationship between well-being and travel. The recent surge of scholarly work in positive psychology concerned with human well-being and flourishing represents a contemporary force with the potential to embellish and augment much current tourism study. This book maps out the field and then draws links between tourists, tourism and positive psychology. It discusses topics such as the issue of excess materialism and its fragile relationship with well-being, the value of positive psychology to lifestyle businesses, and the insights of the research field to spa and wellness tourism. This volume will interest those who study and practise tourism as well as scholars and graduate students in a range of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, business and leisure.
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