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This book is an introduction to the ideas from general topology that are used in elementary analysis. It is written at a level that is intended to make the bulk of the material accessible to students in the latter part of their first year of study at a university or college although students will normally meet most of the work in their second or later years. The aim has been to bridge the gap between introductory books like the author"s Mathematical Analysis: A Straightforward Approach, in which carefully selected theorems are discussed at length with numerous examples, and the more advanced book on analysis, in which the author is more concerned with providing a comprehensive and elegant theory than in smoothing the ways for beginners. An attempt has been made throughout not only to prepare the ground for more advanced work, but also to revise and to illuminate the material which students will have met previously but may have not fully understood.
Mathematicians have developed the language of topology; but the conventional development leaves until last the discussion and ideas about shapes, so those who have not mastered the initial ideas of analysis and general topology are barred from participation by a rigid formalism. This book, first published in 1976, adopts a different approach, developing a language close to that of ordinary discourse. It is intended to encourage readers of varying backgrounds, but especially students, to think spatially. The text is well illustrated, with toned drawings creating three-dimensional effects where appropriate, and there are abundant exercises. Useful appendices accompany the text, providing hints and solutions to these exercises and also a sketch of how the treatment can be modelled within a conventional topology course for more advanced students. The book can be regarded as an example of the emerging discipline of mathematics education, as well as being about surfaces.
The earlier chapter of this self-contained text provide a route from first principles through standard linear and quadratic algebra to geometric algebra, with Clifford's geometric algebras taking pride of place. In parallel with this is an account, also from first principles, of the elementary theory of topological spaces and of continuous and differentiable maps that leads up to the definitions of smooth manifolds and their tangent spaces and of Lie groups and Lie algebras. The calculus is presented as far as possible in basis free form to emphasize its geometrical flavour and its linear algebra content. In this second edition Dr Porteous has taken the opportunity to add a chapter on triality which extends earlier work on the Spin groups in the chapter on Clifford algebras. The details include a number of important transitive group actions and a description of one of the exceptional Lie groups, the group G2. A number of corrections and improvements have also been made. There are many exercises throughout the book and senior undergraduates in mathematics as well as first-year graduate students will continue to find it stimulating and rewarding.
This account is a study of twofold symmetry in algebraic topology. The author discusses specifically the antipodal involution of a real vector bundle - multiplication by - I in each fibre; doubling and squaring operations; the symmetry of bilinear forms and Hermitian K-theory. In spite of its title, this is not a treatise on equivariant topology; rather it is the language in which to describe the symmetry. Familiarity with the basic concepts of algebraic topology (homotopy, stable homotopy, homology, K-theory, the Pontrjagin Thom transfer construction) is assumed. Detailed proofs are not given (the expert reader will be able to supply them when necessary) yet nowhere is credibility lost. Thus the approach is elementary enough to provide an introduction to the subject suitable for graduate students although research workers will find here much of interest.
This book presents to the reader a modern axiomatic construction of three-dimensional Euclidean geometry in a rigorous and accessible form. It is helpful for high school teachers who are interested in the modernization of the teaching of geometry.
In these notes, first published in 1980, Professor Northcott provides a self-contained introduction to the theory of affine algebraic groups for mathematicians with a basic knowledge of communicative algebra and field theory. The book divides into two parts. The first four chapters contain all the geometry needed for the second half of the book which deals with affine groups. Alternatively the first part provides a sure introduction to the foundations of algebraic geometry. Any affine group has an associated Lie algebra. In the last two chapters, the author studies these algebras and shows how, in certain important cases, their properties can be transferred back to the groups from which they arose. These notes provide a clear and carefully written introduction to algebraic geometry and algebraic groups.
The cognitive foundations of geometry have puzzled academics for a long time, and even today are mostly unknown to many scholars, including mathematical cognition researchers. Foundations of Geometric Cognition shows that basic geometric skills are deeply hardwired in the visuospatial cognitive capacities of our brains, namely spatial navigation and object recognition. These capacities, shared with non-human animals and appearing in early stages of the human ontogeny, cannot, however, fully explain a uniquely human form of geometric cognition. In the book, Hohol argues that Euclidean geometry would not be possible without the human capacity to create and use abstract concepts, demonstrating how language and diagrams provide cognitive scaffolding for abstract geometric thinking, within a context of a Euclidean system of thought. Taking an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on research from diverse fields including psychology, cognitive science, and mathematics, this book is a must-read for cognitive psychologists and cognitive scientists of mathematics, alongside anyone interested in mathematical education or the philosophical and historical aspects of geometry.
Stiefel manifolds are an interesting family of spaces much studied by algebraic topologists. These notes, which originated in a course given at Harvard University, describe the state of knowledge of the subject, as well as the outstanding problems. The emphasis throughout is on applications (within the subject) rather than on theory. However, such theory as is required is summarized and references to the literature are given, thus making the book accessible to non-specialists and particularly graduate students. Many examples are given and further problems suggested.
The purpose of these notes is to give a geometrical treatment of generalized homology and cohomology theories. The central idea is that of a 'mock bundle', which is the geometric cocycle of a general cobordism theory, and the main new result is that any homology theory is a generalized bordism theory. The book will interest mathematicians working in both piecewise linear and algebraic topology especially homology theory as it reaches the frontiers of current research in the topic. The book is also suitable for use as a graduate course in homology theory.
This elegant book by distinguished mathematician John Milnor, provides a clear and succinct introduction to one of the most important subjects in modern mathematics. Beginning with basic concepts such as diffeomorphisms and smooth manifolds, he goes on to examine tangent spaces, oriented manifolds, and vector fields. Key concepts such as homotopy, the index number of a map, and the Pontryagin construction are discussed. The author presents proofs of Sard's theorem and the Hopf theorem.
These notes give a fairly elementary introduction to the local theory of differentiable mappings. Sard's Theorem and the Preparation Theorem of Malgrange and Mather are the basic tools and these are proved first. There follows a number of illustrations including: the local part of Whitney's Theorem on mappings of the plane into the plane, quadratic differentials, the Instability Theorem of Thom, one of Mather's theorems on finite determinacy and a glimpse of the theory of Toujeron. The later part of the book develops Mather's theory of unfoldings of singularities. Its application to Catastrophe theory is explained and the Elementary Catastrophes are illustrated by many pictures. The book is suitable as a text for courses to graduates and advanced undergraduates but may also be of interest to mathematical biologists and economists.
Eleven of the fourteen invited speakers at a symposium held by the Oxford Mathematical Institute in June 1972 have revised their contributions and submitted them for publication in this volume. The present papers do not necessarily closely correspond with the original talks, as it was the intention of the volume editor to make this book of mathematical rather than historical interest. The contributions will be of value to workers in topology in universities and polytechnics.
Differential Geometry of Manifolds, Second Edition presents the extension of differential geometry from curves and surfaces to manifolds in general. The book provides a broad introduction to the field of differentiable and Riemannian manifolds, tying together classical and modern formulations. It introduces manifolds in a both streamlined and mathematically rigorous way while keeping a view toward applications, particularly in physics. The author takes a practical approach, containing extensive exercises and focusing on applications, including the Hamiltonian formulations of mechanics, electromagnetism, string theory. The Second Edition of this successful textbook offers several notable points of revision. New to the Second Edition: New problems have been added and the level of challenge has been changed to the exercises Each section corresponds to a 60-minute lecture period, making it more user-friendly for lecturers Includes new sections which provide more comprehensive coverage of topics Features a new chapter on Multilinear Algebra
This set of notes, for graduate students who are specializing in algebraic topology, adopts a novel approach to the teaching of the subject. It begins with a survey of the most beneficial areas for study, with recommendations regarding the best written accounts of each topic. Because a number of the sources are rather inaccessible to students, the second part of the book comprises a collection of some of these classic expositions, from journals, lecture notes, theses and conference proceedings. They are connected by short explanatory passages written by Professor Adams, whose own contributions to this branch of mathematics are represented in the reprinted articles.
Friedrich Hirzebruch (1927 -2012) was a German mathematician, working in the fields of topology, complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, and a leading figure of his generation. Hirzebruch's first great mathematical achievement was the proof, in 1954, of the generalization of the classical Riemann-Roch theorem to higher dimensional complex manifolds, now known as the Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch theorem. This used the new techniques of sheaf cohomology and was one of the centerpieces of the explosion of new results in geometry and topology during the 1950s. Further generalization of this led to the Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem, and the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. He received many awards and honors, including the Wolf prize in 1988, the Lobachevsky prize in 1990, and fifteen honorary doctorates. These two volumes collect the majority of his research papers, which cover a variety of topics.
In zwei Banden sind fast alle Veroffentlichungen enthalten, die F. Hirzebruch verfasst hat."
A veteran math educator reveals the hidden fascinations of geometry and why this staple of math education is important. If you remember anything about high school geometry class, it's probably doing proofs. But geometry is more than axioms, postulates, theorems, and proofs. It's the science of beautiful and extraordinary geometric relationships--most of which is lost in high school classrooms where the focus is on the rigor of logically proving those relationships. This book will awaken readers to the appeal of geometry by placing the focus squarely on geometry's visually compelling features and intrinsic elegance. Who knew that straight lines, circles, and area could be so interesting? Not to mention optical illusions. So get out the rulers, compasses, or even a software program, and discover geometry for the first time.
This account of algebraic topology is complete in itself, assuming no previous knowledge of the subject. It is used as a textbook for students in the final year of an undergraduate course or on graduate courses and as a handbook for mathematicians in other branches who want some knowledge of the subject.
Wondrous One Sheet Origami is a how-to book full of beautiful origami designs covering a wide range of folding levels from simple to high intermediate, with more emphasis on the latter. The book is meant for audiences 12 years of age and above, and children folding at higher than age level. Most of the designs are flat and suitable for mounting on cards or framing as gifts. Features * Richly illustrated full-color book with clear, crisp diagrams following international standard, and an abundance of photographs of finished models * Select designs hand-picked by the author based on social media responses * Most of the designs incorporate color-change, a technique showing both sides of paper for enhanced beauty
In the 1800s mathematicians introduced a formal theory of symmetry: group theory. Now a branch of abstract algebra, this subject first arose in the theory of equations. Symmetry is an immensely important concept in mathematics and throughout the sciences, and its applications range across the entire subject. Symmetry governs the structure of crystals, innumerable types of pattern formation, how systems change their state as parameters vary; and fundamental physics is governed by symmetries in the laws of nature. It is highly visual, with applications that include animal markings, locomotion, evolutionary biology, elastic buckling, waves, the shape of the Earth, and the form of galaxies. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart demonstrates its deep implications, and shows how it plays a major role in the current search to unify relativity and quantum theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Since the introduction of homotopy groups by Hurewicz in 1935, homotopy theory has occupied a prominent place in the development of algebraic topology. This monograph provides an account of the subject which bridges the gap between the fundamental concepts of topology and the more complex treatment to be found in original papers. The first six chapters describe the essential ideas of homotopy theory: homotopy groups, the classical theorems, the exact homotopy sequence, fibre-spaces, the Hopf invariant, and the Freudenthal suspension. The final chapters discuss J. H. C. Whitehead's cell-complexes and their application to homotopy groups of complexes.
What does it mean to have visual intuition? Can we gain geometrical knowledge by using visual reasoning? And if we can, is it because we have a faculty of intuition? In" After Euclid," Jesse Norman reexamines the ancient and long-disregarded concept of visual reasoning and reasserts its potential as a formidable tool in our ability to grasp various kinds of geometrical knowledge. The first detailed philosophical case study of its kind, this text is essential reading for scholars in the fields of mathematics and philosophy.
The connective topological modular forms spectrum, $tmf$, is in a sense initial among elliptic spectra, and as such is an important link between the homotopy groups of spheres and modular forms. A primary goal of this volume is to give a complete account, with full proofs, of the homotopy of $tmf$ and several $tmf$-module spectra by means of the classical Adams spectral sequence, thus verifying, correcting, and extending existing approaches. In the process, folklore results are made precise and generalized. Anderson and Brown-Comenetz duality, and the corresponding dualities in homotopy groups, are carefully proved. The volume also includes an account of the homotopy groups of spheres through degree 44, with complete proofs, except that the Adams conjecture is used without proof. Also presented are modern stable proofs of classical results which are hard to extract from the literature. Tools used in this book include a multiplicative spectral sequence generalizing a construction of Davis and Mahowald, and computer software which computes the cohomology of modules over the Steenrod algebra and products therein. Techniques from commutative algebra are used to make the calculation precise and finite. The $H$-infinity ring structure of the sphere and of $tmf$ are used to determine many differentials and relations.
Geometry provides a whole range of views on the universe, serving as the inspiration, technical toolkit and ultimate goal for many branches of mathematics and physics. This book introduces the ideas of geometry, and includes a generous supply of simple explanations and examples. The treatment emphasises coordinate systems and the coordinate changes that generate symmetries. The discussion moves from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometries, including spherical and hyperbolic geometry, and then on to affine and projective linear geometries. Group theory is introduced to treat geometric symmetries, leading to the unification of geometry and group theory in the Erlangen program. An introduction to basic topology follows, with the Moebius strip, the Klein bottle and the surface with g handles exemplifying quotient topologies and the homeomorphism problem. Topology combines with group theory to yield the geometry of transformation groups,having applications to relativity theory and quantum mechanics. A final chapter features historical discussions and indications for further reading. With minimal prerequisites, the book provides a first glimpse of many research topics in modern algebra, geometry and theoretical physics. The book is based on many years' teaching experience, and is thoroughly class-tested. There are copious illustrations, and each chapter ends with a wide supply of exercises. Further teaching material is available for teachers via the web, including assignable problem sheets with solutions.
Differential geometry and topology have become essential tools for many theoretical physicists. In particular, they are indispensable in theoretical studies of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Geometry, Topology and Physics, Second Edition introduces the ideas and techniques of differential geometry and topology at a level suitable for postgraduate students and researchers in these fields. The second edition of this popular and established text incorporates a number of changes designed to meet the needs of the reader and reflect the development of the subject. The book features a considerably expanded first chapter, reviewing aspects of path integral quantization and gauge theories. Chapter 2 introduces the mathematical concepts of maps, vector spaces, and topology. The following chapters focus on more elaborate concepts in geometry and topology and discuss the application of these concepts to liquid crystals, superfluid helium, general relativity, and bosonic string theory. Later chapters unify geometry and topology, exploring fiber bundles, characteristic classes, and index theorems. New to this second edition is the proof of the index theorem in terms of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The final two chapters are devoted to the most fascinating applications of geometry and topology in contemporary physics, namely the study of anomalies in gauge field theories and the analysis of Polakov's bosonic string theory from the geometrical point of view. Geometry, Topology and Physics, Second Edition is an ideal introduction to differential geometry and topology for postgraduate students and researchers in theoretical and mathematical physics.
From a review of the second edition:
"This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here."
(David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society)
This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it 's accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.
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