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This book provides theoretical concepts and applications of fractals and multifractals to a broad range of audiences from various scientific communities, such as petroleum, chemical, civil and environmental engineering, atmospheric research, and hydrology. In the first chapter, we introduce fractals and multifractals from physics and math viewpoints. We then discuss theory and practical applications in detail. In what follows, in chapter 2, fragmentation process is modeled using fractals. Fragmentation is the breaking of aggregates into smaller pieces or fragments, a typical phenomenon in nature. In chapter 3, the advantages and disadvantages of two- and three-phase fractal models are discussed in detail. These two kinds of approach have been widely applied in the literature to model different characteristics of natural phenomena. In chapter 4, two- and three-phase fractal techniques are used to develop capillary pressure curve models, which characterize pore-size distribution of porous media. Percolation theory provides a theoretical framework to model flow and transport in disordered networks and systems. Therefore, following chapter 4, in chapter 5 the fractal basis of percolation theory and its applications in surface and subsurface hydrology are discussed. In chapter 6, fracture networks are shown to be modeled using fractal approaches. Chapter 7 provides different applications of fractals and multifractals to petrophysics and relevant area in petroleum engineering. In chapter 8, we introduce the practical advantages of fractals and multifractals in geostatistics at large scales, which have broad applications in stochastic hydrology and hydrogeology. Multifractals have been also widely applied to model atmospheric characteristics, such as precipitation, temperature, and cloud shape. In chapter 9, these kinds of properties are addressed using multifractals. At watershed scales, river networks have been shown to follow fractal behavior. Therefore, the applications of fractals are addressed in chapter 10. Time series analysis has been under investigations for several decades in physics, hydrology, atmospheric research, civil engineering, and water resources. In chapter 11, we therefore, provide fractal, multifractal, multifractal detrended fluctuation analyses, which can be used to study temporal characterization of a phenomenon, such as flow discharge at a specific location of a river. Chapter 12 addresses signals and again time series using a novel fractal Fourier analysis. In chapter 13, we discuss constructal theory, which has a perspective opposite to fractal theories, and is based on optimizationof diffusive exchange. In the case of river drainages, for example, the constructal approach begins at the divide and generates headwater streams first, rather than starting from the fundamental drainage pattern.
Unifies the field of optimization with a few geometric principles.
The number of books that can legitimately be called classics in their fields is small indeed, but David Luenberger's Optimization by Vector Space Methods certainly qualifies. Not only does Luenberger clearly demonstrate that a large segment of the field of optimization can be effectively unified by a few geometric principles of linear vector space theory, but his methods have found applications quite removed from the engineering problems to which they were first applied. Nearly 30 years after its initial publication, this book is still among the most frequently cited sources in books and articles on financial optimization.
The book uses functional analysis —the study of linear vector spaces —to impose simple, intuitive interpretations on complex, infinite-dimensional problems. The early chapters offer an introduction to functional analysis, with applications to optimization. Topics addressed include linear space, Hilbert space, least-squares estimation, dual spaces, and linear operators and adjoints. Later chapters deal explicitly with optimization theory, discussing
End-of-chapter problems constitute a major component of this book and come in two basic varieties. The first consists of miscellaneous mathematical problems and proofs that extend and supplement the theoretical material in the text; the second, optimization problems, illustrates further areas of application and helps the reader formulate and solve practical problems.
For professionals and graduate students in engineering, mathematics, operations research, economics, and business and finance, Optimization by Vector Space Methods is an indispensable source of problem-solving tools.
This volume consists of the refereed proceedings of the Japan Conference on Discrete and Computational Geometry (JCDCG 2004) held at Tokai University in Tokyo, Japan, October, 8-11, 2004, to honor Jan ' os Pach on his 50th year. J' anos Pach has generously supported the e?orts to promote research in discrete and computational geometry among mathematicians in Asia for many years. The conference was attended by close to 100 participants from 20 countries. Since it was ?rst organized in 1997, the annual JCDCG has attracted a growing international participation. The earlier conferences were held in Tokyo, followed by conferences in Manila, Philippines, and Bandung, Indonesia. The proceedings of JCDCG 1998, 2000, 2002 and IJCCGGT 2003 were published by SpringeraspartoftheseriesLectureNotesinComputerScience(LNCS)volumes 1763, 2098, 2866 and 3330, respectively, while the proceedings of JCDCG 2001 were also published by Springer as a special issue of the journal Graphs and Combinatorics, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2002. The organizers of JCDCG 2004 gratefully acknowledge the sponsorship of Tokai University, the support of the conference secretariat and the partici- tion of the principal speakers: Ferran Hurtado, Hiro Ito, Alberto M' arquez, Ji? r' ? Matou? sek, Ja 'nos Pach, Jonathan Shewchuk, William Steiger, Endre Szemer' edi, G' eza T' oth, Godfried Toussaint and Jorge Urrutia.
It is with pleasure that I write the foreword to this excellent book. A wide range of observations in geology and solid-earth geophysics can be - plained in terms of fractal distributions. In this volume a collection of - pers considers the fractal behavior of the Earth's continental crust. The book begins with an excellent introductory chapter by the editor Dr. V.P. Dimri. Surface gravity anomalies are known to exhibit power-law spectral behavior under a wide range of conditions and scales. This is self-affine fractal behavior. Explanations of this behavior remain controversial. In chapter 2 V.P. Dimri and R.P. Srivastava model this behavior using Voronoi tessellations. Another approach to understanding the structure of the continental crust is to use electromagnetic induction experiments. Again the results often exhibit power law spectral behavior. In chapter 3 K. Bahr uses a fractal based random resister network model to explain the observations. Other examples of power-law spectral observations come from a wide range of well logs using various logging tools. In chapter 4 M. Fedi, D. Fiore, and M. La Manna utilize multifractal models to explain the behavior of well logs from the main KTB borehole in Germany. In chapter 5 V.V. Surkov and H. Tanaka model the electrokinetic currents that may be as- ciated with seismic electric signals using a fractal porous media. In chapter 6 M. Pervukhina, Y. Kuwahara, and H. Ito use fractal n- works to correlate the elastic and electrical properties of porous media.
The aim of this monograph is to introduce the reader to modern
methods of projective geometry involving certain techniques of
formal geometry. Some of these methods are illustrated in the first
part through the proofs of a number of results of a rather
classical flavor, involving in a crucial way the first
infinitesimal neighbourhood of a given subvariety in an ambient
variety. Motivated by the first part, in the second formal
functions on the formal completion X/Y of X along a closed
subvariety Y are studied, particularly the extension problem of
formal functions to rational functions.
This up-to-date monograph, providing an up-to-date overview of the field of Hepatitis Prevention and Treatment, includes contributions from internationally recognized experts on viral hepatitis, and covers the current state of knowledge and practice regarding the molecular biology, immunology, biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical aspects of chronic HBV and HCV infection. The book provides the latest information, with sufficient background and discussion of the literature to benefit the newcomer to the field.
This book gives senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students and researchers in computer vision, applied mathematics, computer graphics, and robotics a self-contained introduction to the geometry of 3D vision; that is the reconstruction of 3D models of objects from a collection of 2D images. Following a brief introduction, Part I provides background materials for the rest of the book. The two fundamental transformations, namely rigid body motion and perspective projection are introduced and image formation and feature extraction discussed. Part II covers the classic theory of two view geometry based on the so-called epipolar constraint. Part III shows that a more proper tool for studying the geometry of multiple views is the so- called rank considtion on the multiple view matrix. Part IV develops practical reconstruction algorithms step by step as well as discusses possible extensions of the theory. Exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. Software for examples and algorithms are available on the author's website.
This text describes how fractal phenomena, both deterministic and random, change over time, using the fractional calculus. The intent is to identify those characteristics of complex physical phenomena that require fractional derivatives or fractional integrals to describe how the process changes over time. The discussion emphasizes the properties of physical phenomena whose evolution is best described using the fractional calculus, such as systems with long-range spatial interactions or long-time memory. In many cases, classic analytic function theory cannot serve for modeling complex phenomena; "Physics of Fractal Operators" shows how classes of less familiar functions, such as fractals, can serve as useful models in such cases. Because fractal functions, such as the Weierstrass function (long known not to have a derivative), do in fact have fractional derivatives, they can be cast as solutions to fractional differential equations. The traditional techniques for solving differential equations, including Fourier and Laplace transforms as well as Green's functions, can be generalized to fractional derivatives. Physics of Fractal Operators addresses a general strategy for understanding wave propagation through random media, the nonlinear response of complex materials, and the fluctuations of various forms of transport in heterogeneous materials. This strategy builds on traditional approaches and explains why the historical techniques fail as phenomena become more and more complicated.
This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces.
These volumes contain carefully edited selections of papers that were presented at the Symposium on Trends in Approximation Theory, held in May 2000, and at the Oslo Conference on Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces, held in July 2000. Both contain several invited surveys written by leading experts in the field, along with contributed research papers on the most current developments in approximation theory and in the theory and application of curves and surfaces. These books will be of great interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists.
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