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Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
Torres' Patient Care in Imaging Technology, 9th Edition helps students develop the knowledge and skills they need to become safe, perceptive, and efficient radiologic technologists. The book offers a strong illustration program and a logical organization that emphasizes the connections between classroom learning and clinical practice. Fully aligned with the latest ARRT and ASRT standards, this edition covers current trends and advances in the field and offers an unparalleled array of online teaching and learning resources. eBOOK AVAILABLE. Faster, smarter, and more convenient, today's eBooks can transform learning. These interactive, fully searchable tools offer 24/7 access on multiple devices, the ability to highlight and share notes, and much more. NEW ALIGNMENT! Full alignment with the latest ARRT and ASRT standards helps prepare students for certification and successful practice. ENHANCED CASE STUDIES! New and updated case studies with critical thinking questions give students practice dealing with the types of real-world situations they will encounter on the job. SITUATIONAL JUDGEMENT SECTIONS: These sections build critical thinking skills by presenting practical situations and asking students to assess them based on what they have learned. NEW CONTENT: The text reflects new and relevant advances in the field, including updates in pediatric, geriatric, trauma, and mobile imaging. CULTURALLY SENSITIVE: Cultural Considerations boxes demonstrate the importance of being aware of the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of patients. STUDENT-FOCUSED: Learning Objectives and Key Terms that orient students to the chapter; Display boxes that highlight accreditation, competency, or skills information; and Call Out and Warning boxes that alert students to important facts and common pitfalls help students prepare for practice.
This book offers a single publication to be utilised comprehensively as a reference manual within current mammographic clinical practice for use by assistant practitioners and practitioners as well as trainees in radiography and related disciplines. In recent years mammographic clinical practice and technology have evolved rapidly and become increasingly sophisticated, this book will cover these issues. The public feel increasingly empowered to `have a say' in their care and expectations of their mammography experience is high. Consequently a well-trained, well-informed practitioner is of paramount importance in clinical practice today. This book addresses patient/client-related issues in the form of psychological and emotional support they may require. This will enable the reader to gain insight into the patient/client perspective and thereby assist in meeting their needs.
Sharpen your diagnostic skills for brain and spine disorders with this unique patterns-based approach to learning Brain and Spine Imaging Patterns presents a systematic approach to understanding one of the most challenging areas of radiologic interpretation. Uniquely organized by various patterns seen on CT, MRI, and plain radiography imaging rather than pathology, the book carefully guides you toward a group of differential diagnoses. You will find an unmatched collection of more than 140 patterns covering: skull defects and lesions; meningeal and sulcal diseases; extracerebral masses; intracerebral masses; mass lesions in the region of the ventricular system; sellar and parasellar masses; vascular legions; lesions in the cortical gray matter, white matter, and deep gray matter; and spinal diseases and lesions. The easy-to-navigate organization of this book is specifically designed for use at the workstation. The concise text, numerous images, and helpful icons facilitate access to essential information and simplify the learning process. Features More than 140 patterns and more than 2500 digital-quality images A strong focus on patterns recognized on MRI, including contrast-enhanced MRI Icons, a grading system depicting the relative frequency of findings from common to rare, and the consistent organization of chapters help to clarify information for at-the-bench consultation Many patterns include a set of "Related Patterns" images, which serve as cross-references to similar patterns for a given disorder Special emphasis on the latest diagnostic modalities includes state-of-the-art depiction of image findings
This book is an indispensable reference for pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists, as well as orthopedic surgeons. It offers in depth analysis of pediatric orthopedic imaging, covering normal and aberrant development as well as both common and unusual pediatric disorders. Chapters on the spine, shoulder, elbow, hand and wrist, hip and pelvis, lower extremity, and foot and ankle address site-specific congenital and acquired lesions. Subsequent chapters cover generalized orthopedic diseases such as neurofibromatosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, infectious processes, neuromuscular diseases, musculoskeletal tumors, trauma, and orthopedic procedures. The chapters review associated epidemiology, clinical presentation and evolution, treatment, and differential diagnoses, with in-depht analysis of imaging characteristics. With more than 1800 images, high-quality MRI, CT, and US examples complement the radiographs of a broad variety of musculoskeletal disorders.
This book presents the current trends and practices in breast imaging. Topics include mammographic interpretation; breast ultrasound; breast MRI; management of the symptomatic breast in young, pregnant and lactating women; breast intervention with imaging pathological correlation; the postoperative breast and current and emerging technologies in breast imaging. It emphasizes the importance of fostering a multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. Featuring more than 800 high-resolution images and showcasing contributions from leading authorities in the screening, diagnosis and management of the breast cancer patient, "Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis" is a valuable resource for radiologists, oncologists and surgeons.
"An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil .a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." - Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of "applied biology." They were not coerced to behave as they did- they generated the eugenic theories that rationally led them to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers, euthanasia programs and, ultimately, mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could treat human beings as they did, can I be certain that I will never do the same?" Presents relatively unknown aspects of human subjects research during the Third Reich Reveals surprising relationships between German and American human subjects research Dispels myths about Nazi human subjects research Compels introspection and self-examination by today'
This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.
Abdominal Ultrasound for Surgeons provides a comprehensive guide to the use of ultrasonography in surgical practice of abdominal diseases. The content is divided into three major sections, with the final section being dedicated to the logistics of incorporating ultrasound into a surgical practice. In Part I : The Basics, the principles of ultrasonography are reviewed focusing on ultrasound physics, equipment and instrumentation. A detailed approach to the various scanning methods with image and artifact interpretation is demonstrated with illustrations and images. In Part II : Anatomy, Application and Intervention, ultrasound anatomy and its use in surgery are detailed. The normal and abnormal ultrasound anatomy of specific abdominal organ or organ systems (esophagus, liver, pancreas, biliary, stomach, anorectum, vascularabdominal wall) with illustrations and images are demonstrated. A state-of-the-art review of the major applications of surgical abdominal ultrasound is provided in this section ranging from trauma ultrasound and laparoscopic staging to techniques in ultrasound guidance and three-dimensional targeting. In Part III : Ultrasound in Surgical Practice, the practical aspects of incorporation of ultrasound into a surgical practice are addressed with topics ranging from credentialing to coding and billing. Abdominal Ultrasound for Surgeons will serve as a very useful resource and guide for surgeons and students with little to some experience in ultrasound, including practicing surgeons, surgical fellows and surgical residents.
Ultrasound plays an important role in the diagnostic imaging of infants and children and has indeed become the workhorse for many conditions. This is attributable both to the avoidance of ionizing radiation and to the unique features displayed on ultrasound in children in almost all body areas. In the future the potential of ultrasound can be expected to increase further owing to new developments such as ultrasound contrast material, three- or four- dimensional ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography. This book systematically covers the use of ultrasound in all organ systems and throughout childhood. After discussion of the basics, including physics, artifacts, and procedural details, decision making regarding the use of ultrasound is elucidated by listing next imaging steps based on recommended imaging algorithms. The indications and prerequisites for a particular examination are documented, and practical tips and tricks are highlighted. The normal, age-dependent ultrasound findings and typical appearances in different pathologies are presented in detail and illustrated by numerous high-quality images. Particular emphasis is placed on those findings that differ from the adult sonographic appearances. In addition to the classic pediatric abdominal applications, detailed consideration is given to neurosonography, echocardiography, chest ultrasound, musculoskeletal and hip ultrasound, Doppler sonography, and interventional ultrasound. The potential role of the most modern techniques in various situations is explained. Pediatric Ultrasound will prove an invaluable source of information and an indispensable aid to decision making and diagnosis for radiology residents, experienced (pediatric) radiologists, sonographers, pediatricians, pediatric surgeons and urologists, and all other physicians who deal with children as a part of their daily practice.
The new edition of this leading text atlas on corneal topography has been updated to include the latest advances in technology, such as Pentacam and Orbscan. The principles and theory underlying each technology are first clearly explained, and clinical applications are then examined. The authors describe how to use the different technologies and devices, explain the clinical readout with illustrations of normal corneal topography, discuss applications and findings in common disease states, and present the appearances after various corneal surgical procedures. The pros and cons of each system are highlighted. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book is the most comprehensive guide to corneal topography currently available. It is anticipated that this second edition will become the seminal corneal topography textbook for all with an interest in corneal disease and its management, and refractive surgery.
The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele- like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.
Pediatric tumors comprise a unique set of diseases that may pose diagnostic challenges to pathologists, oncologists, and pediatricians. Pediatric Tumor Pathology: A Practical Approach serves as a state-of-the-art reference for understanding the fundamental biology and diagnostic aspects of pediatric tumors. This volume stands apart from other books covering pediatric neoplasia by providing an in-depth analysis of the pathogenetic and diagnostic aspects of the most commonly encountered tumors. The volume covers the new advances in our understanding of the molecular processes underlying a number of pediatric tumors and the novel, sophisticated diagnostic tools that have now become an integral part of practice standards. Pediatric Tumor Pathology: A Practical Approach will be of great value for many practicing clinicians and pathologists for characterizing and diagnosing childhood tumors. Oncologists, radiologists, surgeons and pediatricians will also find this book a unique and valuable resource for understanding the biological and diagnostic aspects of pediatric tumor pathology.
Neuroscience is an evolving, complex, and multidisciplinary field of medicine. Neuroradiologists and neuropathologists are an important part of the multidisciplinary team, in addition to neurosurgeons, neurologists, and other disciplines. Featuring over nine hundred images, this practical textbook and atlas combines the specialties of neuroradiology and neuropathology, providing an extensive understanding of the disease process. It offers a comprehensive review of the nervous system diseases, including eye, skeletal muscle, and bone and soft tissue diseases. Topics are covered in chapters arranged by region, allowing for quick reference of conditions such as brain tumors, spinal cord diseases, or congenital malformations. Introductory chapters on pathologic and radiologic techniques are also featured, enabling specialists of both areas to familiarize themselves with the other's subject. Packaged with a password to give the user online access to all the text and images, this is a must-have resource for comprehensive and accurate diagnosis.
Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that continues to attract increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging while also providing functional information about cardiac diseases. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues discussed are coronary calcium scoring, coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, and anomalies, cardiac valves and function, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as hybrid imaging, preparation and follow-up after valve replacement, electrophysiology applications, myocardial perfusion and fractional flow reserve assessment, and plaque imaging, are also explored.
Recent research has identified the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability as another promising CT application for the comprehensive diagnosis of coronary heart disease. In this book, the first to be devoted to this novel application of CT, leading experts from across the world present up-to-date information and consider future directions. After short sections outlining the state of the art in the traditional applications of CT to image structure and function, the full range of CT techniques that may be employed to evaluate the myocardial blood supply are discussed in detail. Similarly, diverse CT approaches for the assessment of myocardial viability are described, with careful consideration of the available experimental and clinical evidence and the role of quantitative imaging. Protocol recommendations that will be of invaluable practical assistance are also provided.
Orthopedic devices improve the quality of life of millions of people, and show up on radiographs and cross-sectional imaging studies daily. This text will familiarise radiologists with the indications, applications, potential complications, and radiologic evaluation of many medical devices. The book offers a complete discussion of fracture fixation, joint arthroplasty, and orthopedic apparatus of the neck and spine, including the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. It also provides detailed overviews of devices used for common dental disease, covers the general principles applicable to complications of orthopedic devices, foreign body ingestions, insertions and injuries, and details quality assurance issues concerning the manufacture and distribution of devices. Featuring a large gallery of apparatus for reference, an extensive glossary of terms and a list of manufacturers, Radiologic Guide to Orthopedic Devices is an essential resource for radiologists, orthopedists and emergency medicine physicians. Regular updates to the topics covered will be available on http://www.medapparatus.com.
Since magnifying endoscopy of the stomach, or zoom gastroscopy, was first performed at the beginning of the 21st century , there have been numerous findings in the field worldwide. The author of this volume has developed a standardized magnifying endoscopy technique that enables endoscopists to constantly visualize the microanatomy (subepithelial capillaries and the epithelial structure) within the stomach. With this technology, it has become easy to obtain magnified endoscopic findings. Techniques differ, however, depending upon the endoscopist. Endoscopists around the world do not have a standardized magnifying endoscopy technique, which is mandatory for the scientific analysis of their findings. In addition, there is no logical explanation for how and which microanatomies are visualized by magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging in the glandular epithelium of the stomach. This inconsistency results in considerable confusion among researchers and clinicians and a lack of terminology for the purposes of analysis. As magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI) becomes more popular throughout the world, there is increased demand for a specialized reference book focused on this subject. The aims of the present volume, Zoom Gastroscopy: Magnifying Endoscopy in the Stomach, are manifold: (1) to illustrate the standard magnifying endoscopic technique that can visualize subepithelial mucosal microvessels as small as capillaries, the smallest unit of blood vessels in the human body, (2) to explain the optical phenomena and principles for NBI and its application to magnifying endoscopy, (3) to clarify which microanatomies are visualized by magnifying endoscopy with NBI and how this is achieved, and (4) to present a diagnostic system so called "VS classification system" for early gastric neoplasias. With a single author, the book consistently uses uniform anatomical terms to describe endoscopic findings, providing an essential reference for endoscopists in the world.
This unique book, written by acknowledged experts, provides a comprehensive review of the wide spectrum of skin diseases that may affect the head and neck region and central nervous system. The clearly written, informative text is accompanied by abundant examples of radiological imaging and corresponding vivid clinical photographs. Coverage includes congenital skin lesions, neurocutaneous syndromes, benign and malignant skin tumors, vascular malformations and lesions, trauma, infectious and inflammatory processes, and post-treatment appearances. The book will be an invaluable clinical resource for both neuroradiologists and dermatologists. Patients with skin diseases often undergo neuroradiological imaging, and it is therefore important for neuroradiologists to be familiar with the various types of dermatological conditions and their imaging appearances.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
This book provides the reader with a detailed update on the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with lesions of the brain and other parts of the body. The aim is not simply to explain the application of SRS and document its value with reference to the author's own clinical experiences and other published evidence, but also to contextualize the technology within a new strategic concept of cancer care. When embedded within an appropriate conceptual framework, technology becomes pivotal in changing therapeutic strategies. A new paradigm that is increasingly impacting on clinical practice is the oligometastatic state, on the basis that long-term survival might be achieved in patients with a low volume and number of metastatic lesions. This book accordingly addresses the value of SRS in patients with oligometastases of solid tumors to the brain, lung, spine, and liver. In addition, it examines the use of SRS in patients with diverse brain lesions, early-stage stage lung cancer, liver cancer, and early-stage prostate cancer. Readers will be persuaded that SRS, using cutting-edge imaging technologies to deliver precisely targeted radiation therapy, represents an exciting non-invasive procedure that holds great promise for the present and the future of cancer care.
This book presents up to date debates and issues in the world of breast MRI with a very practical focus on how to incorporate current understanding of breast MRI into clinical practice. The book is divided into three key sections, all of which have critical impact for the breast imager: Techniques introduces the reader to the parameters of breast MRI from standard sequences to up-to-date cutting edge techniques. Indications provides a careful review of the accepted indications for breast MRI from High Risk Screening to use of breast MRI, in the context of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a detailed analysis of the evidence-based support for these indications and a careful look at controversies and debates within the field. MRI Findings, Interpretation, and Management takes on the topics of how to interpret and manage specific MRI findings from benign to malignant disease with a focus on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The section also incorporates a focus on key management dilemmas, including appropriate follow-up intervals for benign findings on MRI and management of probably benign lesions assessed as a Breast Imaging Reporting and Dictating System (BI-RADS)-3 category on MRI.
MR is a powerful modality. At its most advanced, it can be used not just to image anatomy and pathology, but to investigate organ function, to probe in vivo chemistry, and even to visualise the brain thinking. However, clinicians, technologists and scientists struggle with the study of the subject. The result is sometimes an obscurity of understanding, or a dilution of scientific truth, resulting in misconceptions. This is why MRI from Picture to Proton has achieved its reputation for practical clarity. MR is introduced as a tool, with coverage starting from the images, equipment and scanning protocols and traced back towards the underlying physics theory. With new content on quantitative MRI, MR safety, multi-band excitation, Dixon imaging, MR elastography and advanced pulse sequences, and with additional supportive materials available on the book's website, this new edition is completely revised and updated to reflect the best use of modern MR technology.
This volume reviews standard treatments for spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, examining the anatomy of arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure, as well as microsurgical advances and the development of modern therapeutic strategies in intracranial meningiomas. The advances section presents a strategy for minimizing hearing loss after stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas, as well as a description of the mode of action and biology of ALA, including its interaction with tumor cells and the limits of this method. A dedicated chapter addresses the essential question of the limits (and merits) of various tractography techniques and of their importance for non-specialists, who may be tempted to use them uncritically. A further chapter examines molecular markers, which have become standard in neuropathological reports on intracranial tumors, reviewing the prognostic and predictive value of these modern molecular markers in gliomas. Additional chapters round out the coverage, offering a comprehensive overview of standard and advanced techniques.
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