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In this introductory textbook, thermodynamics is presented as a natural extension of mechanics, so that the laws and concepts learned in mechanics serve to get acquainted with the theory. The foundations of thermodynamics are presented in the first part. The second part covers a wide range of applications, which are of central importance in the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, including calorimetry, phase transitions, heat engines and chemical reactions. In the third part, devoted to continuous media, Fourier and Fick's laws, diffusion equations and many transport effects are derived using a unified approach. Each chapter concludes with a selection of worked examples and several exercises, to reinforce key concepts under discussion. A full solutions manual is available at the end of the book. It contains more than 150 problems based on contemporary issues faced by scientists and engineers that are solved in detail for undergraduate and graduate students.
This concise text provides an essential treatment of thermodynamics and a discussion of the basic principles built on an intuitive description of the microscopic behavior of matter. Aimed at a range of courses in mechanical and aerospace engineering, the presentation explains the foundations valid at the macroscopic level in relation to what happens at the microscopic level, relying on intuitive and visual explanations which are presented with engaging cases. With ad hoc, real-word examples related also to current and future renewable energy conversion technologies and two well-known programs used for thermodynamic calculations, FluidProp and StanJan, this text provides students with a rich and engaging learning experience.
This diagram is based on the newest Industrial Standard IAPWS-IF97 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam, which replaces the previous industrial formulation IFC-67.
The fifth edition of "Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids" incorporates two new tables: other material is being retained essentially as in the fourth edition, although tables beyond p.11 will be on different pages.
The new tables are as follows: Data of Refrigerant 134a (tetrafluoroethane - CH2F-CF3) are being added because this refrigerant is environmentally more acceptable than Refrigerant 12 which it replaces. The table of R12 is being retained, however, because R12 will survive in much equipment for a long time. At present it is still uncertain whether R134a is a medium-term substitute, or will be used for much longer than a decade.
Figure 15.11 from "Engineering Thermodynamics, Work and Heat Transfer" (Rogers & Mayhew, Longman 1992) is being included. The table contains, for selected substances, molar enthalpies and molar Gibbs functions of formation, and Equilibrium constants of formation, as well as molar heat capacities and absolute entropies.
Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background and the idealizations on which it rests, with detailed solutions of typical and illustrative problems. Topics include fundamentals of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, temperature effects in inelasticity theory, more. 1985 edition.
Classic monograph treats the irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics-non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and applications of the field with special chapters on fluctuation theory, theory of stochastic processes, kinetic theory of gases, derivation of the Onsager reciprocal relations, more. 4 b/w illustrations.
Nobel laureate's brilliant attempt to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics (classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, etc.). Discussions of Nernst theorem, Planck's oscillator, fluctuations, the n-particle problem, problem of radiation, much more.
The marvellous complexity of the Universe emerges from several deep laws and a handful of fundamental constants that fix its shape, scale, and destiny. There is a deep structure to the world which at the same time is simple, elegant, and beautiful. Where did these laws and these constants come from? And why are the laws so fruitful when written in the language of mathematics? Peter Atkins considers the minimum effort needed to equip the Universe with its laws and its constants. He explores the origin of the conservation of energy, of electromagnetism, of classical and quantum mechanics, and of thermodynamics, showing how all these laws spring from deep symmetries. The revolutionary result is a short but immensely rich weaving together of the fundamental ideas of physics. With his characteristic wit, erudition, and economy, Atkins sketches out how the laws of Nature can spring from very little. Or arguably from nothing at all.
Entropy - the key concept of thermodynamics, clearly explained and carefully illustrated. This book presents an accurate definition of entropy in classical thermodynamics which does not "put the cart before the horse" and is suitable for basic and advanced university courses in thermodynamics. Entropy is the most important and at the same time the most difficult term of thermodynamics to understand. Many students are discontent with its classical definition since it is either based on "temperature" and "heat" which both cannot be accurately defined without entropy, or since it includes concepts such as "molecular disorder" which does not fit in a macroscopic theory. The physicists Elliott Lieb and Jakob Yngvason have recently developed a new formulation of thermodynamics which is free of these problems. The Lieb-Yngvason formulation of classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of adiabatic accessibility and culminates in the entropy principle. The entropy principle represents the accurate mathematical formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Temperature becomes a derived quantity whereas "heat" is no longer needed. This book makes the Lieb-Yngvason theory accessible to students. The presentation is supplemented by seven illustrative examples which explain the application of entropy and the entropy principle in practical problems in science and engineering.
This book explores the Energy Minimization Multi-scale (EMMS) theory and the drag model for heterogeneous gas-solid fluidized flows. The results show that the cluster density plays a critical role with regard to drag. A novel cluster model is proposed and indicates that the profile of cluster density is single-peaked with the maximum value located at solid concentrations of 0.1~0.15. The EMMS theory is improved with the cluster model and an accurate drag model is developed. The model's universality is achieved by investigating the relationship between the heterogeneity and flow patterns. The drag model is subsequently verified numerically and experimentally.
Combustion is a fascinating phenomenon coupling complex chemistry to transport mechanisms and nonlinear fluid dynamics. This book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive presentation of the nonlinear dynamics of combustion waves and other non-equilibrium energetic systems. The major advances in this field have resulted from analytical studies of simplified models performed in close relation with carefully controlled laboratory experiments. The key to understanding the complex phenomena is a systematic reduction of the complexity of the basic equations. Focusing on this fundamental approach, the book is split into three parts. Part I provides physical insights for physics-oriented readers, Part II presents detailed technical analysis using perturbation methods for theoreticians, and Part III recalls the necessary background knowledge in physics, chemistry and fluid dynamics. This structure makes the content accessible to newcomers to the physics of unstable fronts in flows, whilst also offering advanced material for scientists who wish to improve their knowledge.
Offering all aspects of humidity measurement and instrumentation, this work includes rudiments and theory, common applications, advantages and limitations of frequently-used sensors and techniques, and guidelines for installation, maintenance and calibration. The disk is intended for easy conversions of humidity parameters and units.
Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles or ferrofluids can be effectively controlled by magnetic fields, which opens up a fascinating field for basic research into fluid dynamics as well as a host of applications in engineering and medicine. The introductory chapter provides the reader with basic information on the structure, and magnetic and viscous properties of ferrofluids. The bulk of this monograph is based on the author's own research activity and deals with ferrohydrodynamics, especially with the magnetoviscous effects. In particular, the author studies in detail the interparticle interactions so far often neglected but of great importance in concentrated ferrofluids. The basic theory and the most recent experimental findings are presented, making the book interesting reading for physicists or engineers interested in smart materials.
Jiji's extensive understanding of how students think and learn, what they find difficult, and which elements need to be stressed is integrated in this work. He employs an organization and methodology derived from his experience and presents the material in an easy to follow form, using graphical illustrations and examples for maximum effect. The second, enlarged edition provides the reader with a thorough introduction to external turbulent flows, written by Glen Thorncraft. Additional highlights of note: Illustrative examples are used to demonstrate the application of principles and the construction of solutions, solutions follow an orderly approach used in all examples, systematic problem-solving methodology emphasizes logical thinking, assumptions, approximations, application of principles and verification of results. Chapter summaries help students review the material. Guidelines for solving each problem can be selectively given to students.
This book explores diffusion in L12 and B2 structures of Ni3Al, Ni3Ge, Ni3Ga and NiAl, NiGe and NiGa and discusses Fe- and Co-based alloys in detail. These alloys of the VIIIA group elements are the basis of intermetallic compounds known as "super alloys," which are important in many technological high-temperature structural applications to improve mechanical strength properties such as creep. Knowledge of diffusion behavior of intermetallic solids is critical, in particular in high temperature applications of material. Development of high temperature alloys depends on the understanding of diffusion in the aforementioned compounds. Therefore, this comprehensive book on diffusion in the iron group (VIIIA) based intermetallic compounds will be of interest to students, lecturers and researchers. For engineers working in the aircraft industry, this book will prove invaluable as it contains fundamental up to date information and basic knowledge on materials of their interest.
As a companion to the undergraduate textbook "Physical Chemistry from a Different Angle", this workbook offers an excellent opportunity to deepen the understanding of the concepts presented in the textbook by addressing specific problems. The workbook is divided into two parts: a first part with nearly 200 exercises and a second part providing the corresponding detailed solutions with helpful comments, enabling students to learn independently.
This introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics provides an accessible and clear treatment of the fundamentals. Starting with particle mechanics and an early introduction to special relativity this textbooks enables the reader to understand the basics in mechanics. The text is written from the experimental physics point of view, giving numerous real life examples and applications of classical mechanics in technology. This highly motivating presentation deepens the knowledge in a very accessible way. The second part of the text gives a concise introduction to rotational motion, an expansion to rigid bodies, fluids and gases. Finally, an extensive chapter on thermodynamics and a short introduction to nonlinear dynamics with some instructive examples intensify the knowledge of more advanced topics. Numerous problems with detailed solutions are perfect for self study.
For more than 50 years, the Springer VDI Heat Atlas has been an indispensable working means for engineers dealing with questions of heat transfer. Featuring 50% more content, this new edition covers most fields of heat transfer in industrial and engineering applications. It presents the interrelationships between basic scientific methods, experimental techniques, model-based analysis and their transfer to technical applications.
The laws of thermodynamics drive everything that happens in the
universe. From the sudden expansion of a cloud of gas to the
cooling of hot metal--everything is moved or restrained by four
simple laws. Written by Peter Atkins, one of the world's leading
authorities on thermodynamics, this powerful and compact
introduction explains what these four laws are and how they work,
using accessible language and virtually no mathematics. Guiding the
reader a step at a time, Atkins begins with Zeroth (so named
because the first two laws were well established before scientists
realized that a third law, relating to temperature, should precede
them--hence the jocular name zeroth), and proceeds through the
First, Second, and Third Laws, offering a clear account of concepts
such as the availability of work and the conservation of energy.
Atkins ranges from the fascinating theory of entropy (revealing how
its unstoppable rise constitutes the engine of the universe),
through the concept of free energy, and to the brink, and then
beyond the brink, of absolute zero.
This textbook provides an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous introduction to the thermodynamics and thermal physics of planetary processes. It demonstrates how the workings of planetary bodies can be understood in depth by reducing them to fundamental physics and chemistry. The book is based on two courses taught by the author for many years at the University of Georgia. It includes 'Guided Exercise' boxes; end-of-chapter problems (worked solutions provided online); and software boxes (Maple code provided online). As well as being an ideal textbook on planetary thermodynamics for advanced students in the Earth and planetary sciences, it also provides an innovative and quantitative complement to more traditional courses in geological thermodynamics, petrology, chemical oceanography and planetary science. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is also of great interest to researchers looking for a 'one stop' source of concepts and techniques that they can apply to their research problems.
This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area ofclassical physics, specially Classical Mechanics and Electricity and Electromagnetism. Lecturers/ Tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 15 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas and Line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.
An entertaining mathematical exploration of the heat equation and its role in the triumphant development of the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable Heat, like gravity, shapes nearly every aspect of our world and universe, from how milk dissolves in coffee to how molten planets cool. The heat equation, a cornerstone of modern physics, demystifies such processes, painting a mathematical picture of the way heat diffuses through matter. Presenting the mathematics and history behind the heat equation, Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons tells the remarkable story of how this foundational idea brought about one of the greatest technological advancements of the modern era. Paul Nahin vividly recounts the heat equation's tremendous influence on society, showing how French mathematical physicist Joseph Fourier discovered, derived, and solved the equation in the early nineteenth century. Nahin then follows Scottish physicist William Thomson, whose further analysis of Fourier's explorations led to the pioneering trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. This feat of engineering reduced the time it took to send a message across the ocean from weeks to minutes. Readers also learn that Thomson used Fourier's solutions to calculate the age of the earth, and, in a bit of colorful lore, that writer Charles Dickens relied on the trans-Atlantic cable to save himself from a career-damaging scandal. The book's mathematical and scientific explorations can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of high school calculus and physics, and MATLAB code is included to aid readers who would like to solve the heat equation themselves. A testament to the intricate links between mathematics and physics, Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons offers a fascinating glimpse into the relationship between a formative equation and one of the most important developments in the history of human communication.
These proceedings from the 37th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering (MaxEnt 2017), held in Sao Carlos, Brazil, aim to expand the available research on Bayesian methods and promote their application in the scientific community. They gather research from scholars in many different fields who use inductive statistics methods and focus on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm, their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist statistics counterparts, and their appropriate applications. Interest in the foundations of inductive statistics has been growing with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives, and scientists now face much more difficult choices in finding the optimal methods to apply to their problems. By carefully examining and discussing the relevant foundations, the scientific community can avoid applying Bayesian methods on a merely ad hoc basis. For over 35 years, the MaxEnt workshops have explored the use of Bayesian and Maximum Entropy methods in scientific and engineering application contexts. The workshops welcome contributions on all aspects of probabilistic inference, including novel techniques and applications, and work that sheds new light on the foundations of inference. Areas of application in these workshops include astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, communications theory, cosmology, climate studies, earth science, fluid mechanics, genetics, geophysics, machine learning, materials science, medical imaging, nanoscience, source separation, thermodynamics (equilibrium and non-equilibrium), particle physics, plasma physics, quantum mechanics, robotics, and the social sciences. Bayesian computational techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling are also regular topics, as are approximate inferential methods. Foundational issues involving probability theory and information theory, as well as novel applications of inference to illuminate the foundations of physical theories, are also of keen interest.
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