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This book features reviews by leading experts on the methods and applications of modern forms of microscopy. The recent awards of Nobel Prizes awarded for super-resolution optical microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy have demonstrated the rich scientific opportunities for research in novel microscopies. Earlier Nobel Prizes for electron microscopy (the instrument itself and applications to biology), scanning probe microscopy and holography are a reminder of the central role of microscopy in modern science, from the study of nanostructures in materials science, physics and chemistry to structural biology. Separate chapters are devoted to confocal, fluorescent and related novel optical microscopies, coherent diffractive imaging, scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy in all its modes from aberration corrected and analytical to in-situ and time-resolved, low energy electron microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy in biology, and also ion microscopy. In addition to serving as an essential reference for researchers and teachers in the fields such as materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state chemistry, structural biology and the molecular sciences generally, the Springer Handbook of Microscopy is a unified, coherent and pedagogically attractive text for advanced students who need an authoritative yet accessible guide to the science and practice of microscopy.
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination covers a range of common spectroscopic and diffraction methods alongside frequent worked examples and problem questions to assist beginning undergraduates in developing their skills in structure analysis. Furthermore, the practical application of these techniques is emphasized, especially to biological and medical systems. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
Characterisation Methods in Inorganic Chemistry provides a fresh alternative to the existing theoretical and descriptive inorganic chemistry texts by adopting a techniques-based approach and providing problem-solving opportunities to show how analytical methods are used to help us characterise inorganic compounds. The text covers the full range of analytical techniques employed by inorganic chemists, emphasizing those in most frequent use: NMR, diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and IR. The additional coverage on other techniques allows readers to study these less widely used methods when relevant to their specific course material. Each chapter follows a clear, structured format, which begins with a brief introduction to the technique and basic theory behind it before moving on to data collection and analysis, typical data and interpretation, with numerous worked examples, self- tests and problems. Online Resource Centre For registered adopters of the book: - Figures and tables of data from the book, ready to download - Additional problems and exercises For students: - Answers to self-test questions - Additional problems and data sets
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
This monograph reviews all relevant technologies based on mass spectrometry that are used to study or screen biological interactions in general. Arranged in three parts, the text begins by reviewing techniques nowadays almost considered classical, such as affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration, as well as the latest techniques. The second part focusses on all MS-based methods for the study of interactions of proteins with all classes of biomolecules. Besides pull down-based approaches, this section also emphasizes the use of ion mobility MS, capture-compound approaches, chemical proteomics and interactomics. The third and final part discusses other important technologies frequently employed in interaction studies, such as biosensors and microarrays. For pharmaceutical, analytical, protein, environmental and biochemists, as well as those working in pharmaceutical and analytical laboratories.
The chemical composition of any planetary atmosphere is of fundamental importance in determining its photochemistry and dynamics in addition to its thermal balance, climate, origin and evolution. Divided into two parts, this book begins with a set of introductory chapters, starting with a concise review of the Solar System and fundamental atmospheric physics. Chapters then describe the basic principles and methods of spectroscopy, the main tool for studying the chemical composition of planetary atmospheres, and of photochemical modeling and its use in the theoretical interpretation of observational data on chemical composition. The second part of the book provides a detailed review of the carbon dioxide atmospheres and ionospheres of Mars and Venus, and the nitrogen-methane atmospheres of Titan, Triton and Pluto. Written by an expert author, this comprehensive text will make a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and professional scientists specializing in planetary atmospheres.
This second edition of the successful ready reference is updated and revised with approximately 30% new content to reflect the numerous instrumental developments and improvements, as well as the significant expansion of this rapidly developing field. For example, the combination of IR imaging with AFM has enhanced the achievable lateral resolution by an order of magnitude down to a few hundred nanometers, thus launching a multiplicity of new applications in material science. Furthermore, Raman and IR spectroscopic imaging have become key technologies for the life sciences and today contribute tremendously to a better and more detailed understanding of numerous biological and medical research topics. The topical structure of this new edition is now subdivided into four parts. The first treats the fundamentals of the instrumentation for infrared and Raman imaging and mapping and an overview on the chemometric tools for image analysis. The second part describes a wide varie-ty of applications ranging from biomedical via food, agriculture and plants to polymers and pharmaceuticals. This is followed by a description of imaging techniques operating beyond the diffraction limit, while the final part covers special methodical developments and their utility in specific fields. With its many valuable practical tips, this is a must-have overview for researchers in academic and industrial laboratories wishing to obtain reliable results with this method.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most
powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for
investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced
methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of
biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also
used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method
is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are
excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency
transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the
features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms
influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is
This comprehensive handbook covers all fundamentals of electrochemistry for contemporary applications. It provides a rich presentation of related topics of electrochemistry with a clear focus on energy technologies. It covers all aspects of electrochemistry starting with theoretical concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and multiscale modeling. It further gathers the basic experimental methods such as potentiometry, reference electrodes, ion-sensitive electrodes, voltammetry and amperometry. The contents cover subjects related to mass transport, the electric double layer, ohmic losses and experimentation affecting electrochemical reactions. These aspects of electrochemistry are especially examined in view of specific energy technologies including batteries, polymer electrolyte and biological fuel cells, electrochemical capacitors, electrochemical hydrogen production and photoelectrochemistry. Organized in six parts, the overall complexity of electrochemistry is presented and makes this handbook an authoritative reference and definitive source for advanced students, professionals and scientists particularly interested in industrial and energy applications.
Time is an important factor in physical and natural sciences. It characterizes the progress of chemical and biochemical processes. Mass spectrometry provides the means to study molecular structures by detecting gas-phase ions with the unique mass-to-charge ratios. Time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) allows one to differentiate between chemical states that can be observed sequentially at different time points. Real-time mass spectrometric monitoring enables recording data continuously with a specified temporal resolution. The TRMS approaches introduced during the past few decades have shown temporal resolutions ranging from hours down to microseconds and beyond. This text covers the key aspects of TRMS. It introduces ion sources, mass analyzers, and interfaces utilized in time-resolved measurements; discusses the influence of data acquisition and treatment; finally, it reviews most prominent applications of TRMS in the studies of reaction kinetics and mechanism, physicochemical phenomena, protein structure dynamics, biocatalysis, and metabolic profiling. It will assist science and engineering students to gain a basic understanding of the TRMS concept, and to recognize its usefulness. In addition, it may benefit scientists who conduct molecular studies in the areas of chemistry, physics and biology.
Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition
Edmond de Hoffmann, "UniversitA(c) Catholique de Louvain, Belgium" and Vincent Stroobant, "Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch, Belgium."
"Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition" provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this successful textbook focuses on recent developments in techniques and applications. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on practical application examples. As with previous editions, it contains numerous tables of useful data, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding.
Provides a complete overview of the principles, theories and applications of modern mass spectrometry
An extensive revision and update including: increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, resolution and mass accuracy and activation of ions
New material about instruments such as linear traps, Orbitrap, TOF/TOF, hybrid instruments, and about new atmospheric ionisation techniques such as APPI, DESI, DART. The range of applications has been expanded and newer methods such as metabolome are included
Contains numerous examples and exercises to encourage student understanding
"Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition" will prove invaluable to undergraduates and postgraduates using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, materials science and food science. It will alsoappeal to researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. * Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math * Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning * Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses * An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors
A new edition of this practical approach to sampling, experimentation, and applications in the field of inductively coupled plasma spectrometry The second edition of Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry discusses many of the significant developments in the field which have expanded inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry from a useful optical emission spectroscopic technique for trace element analysis into a source for both atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry, capable of detecting elements at sub-ppb (ng mL-1) levels with good accuracy and precision. Comprising nine chapters, this new edition has been fully revised and up-dated in each chapter. It contains information on everything you need to practically know about the different types of instrumentation as well as pre- and post-experimental aspects. Designed to be easily accessible, with a 'start-to-finish' approach, each chapter outlines the key practical aspects of a specific aspect of the topic. The author, a noted expert in the field, details specific applications of the techniques presented, including uses in environmental, food and industrial analysis. This edition: Emphasizes the importance of health and safety; Provides advanced information on sample preparation techniques; Presents an updated chapter on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Features a new chapter on current and future development in ICP technology and one on practical trouble shooting and routine maintenance. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry offers a practical guide that can be used for undergraduate and graduate students in the broad discipline of analytical chemistry, which includes biomedical science, environmental science, food science and forensic science, in both distance and open learning situations. It also provides an excellent reference for those in postgraduate training in these fields.
This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners - engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers - will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope's software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules - no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes an online supplement-an extensive "Database of Electron-Solid Interactions"-which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3
The result of a unique collaboration between clinicians, chemists
and physicists, this book provides an unparalleled overview of a
new generation of diagnostic tools in clinical pathology.
A basic overview of mass spectrometry relevant to life and health science applications, illustrated throughout with relevant case studies This introductory text provides information and assistance to new users of mass spectrometry (MS) working in clinical or biochemical fields who are faced with implementing and designing quantitative mass spectrometric assays for a variety of classes of molecules of biological interest. It presents a detailed discussion on how to optimize measurement parameters for a candidate reference quantitative analysis, including calibration procedures, sensitivity, reproducibility, speed of assay and compliance with regulatory authorities. Quantitative Biological and Clinical Mass Spectrometry uses examples where development has not been immediately successful but where unforeseen problems have arisen and describes the strategies used to solve these. Advances in addressing the very large numbers of clinical samples that arise on routine screening programs such as those involved in inborn errors of metabolism studies are discussed. Direct mass spectrometric based analyses applicable to point of care testing (POCT) situations are also covered. The book concludes with a short section on possible novel developments, bibliography, references, and a glossary of terms. Shows how the presence of false results can be detected and understood Describes the 'parts' of modern instruments from sample introduction through ionization, mass analysis and detection, and the variety of techniques of tandem mass spectrometry Discusses the requirement for specificity in an assay method Fully illustrated throughout Highly relevant to all key areas of mass spectrometric analysis Quantitative Biological and Clinical Mass Spectrometry appeals to those newly exposed to the use of combined chromatography and mass spectrometry for analysis of biological material and to scientists experienced in automated clinical analysis using immunoassays or who are new to mass spectrometry.
Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy - an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi-pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy, plus the theoretical and practical background information. With its excellent overview of the methods, theories and examples, this is the perfect guide for any scientist dealing with tautomeric compounds in a wider context.
This authoritative book on MALDI MS, now finally available in its
second edition and edited by one of its inventors, gives an
in-depth description of the many different applications, along with
a detailed discussion of the technology itself.
Combining an up-to-date insight into mass-spectrometric polymer
analysis beyond MALDI with application details of the
instrumentation, this is a balanced and thorough presentation of
the most important and widely used mass-spectrometric
Second edition of the guide to the modern techniques that demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy Completely revised and updated, the second edition of Modern Raman Spectroscopy presents the information needed for clear understanding and application of the technique of Raman Spectroscopy in a range of areas such as pharmaceuticals, forensics, and biology. The authors--noted experts on the topic--reveal how to make full use of the critical information presented and include a wealth of examples of the pitfalls that can be encountered. The text opens with a description of the basic theory to assist readers in making a practical interpretation of Raman Spectra. Chapters include the main equations that are used in order to highlight the theory's meaning and relevance while avoiding a full mathematical treatment. Modern Raman Spectroscopy provides a firm grounding, combined with a variety of references, from which to approach a more comprehensive study of specific aspects of Raman Spectroscopy. This new edition: Includes instrumentation sections that now contain Spatially Offset Raman scattering and transmission Raman scattering Offers an updated SERS chapter that presents recent examples and Tip enhanced Raman scattering Contains updated information with an emphasis on pharmaceutical, forensic, and biological applications Introduces modern techniques in the imaging and mapping of biological samples and more advanced methods which are becoming easier to use Written for users of Raman Spectroscopy in industry, including non-analysts, researchers, and academics, the second edition of Modern Raman Spectroscopy clearly demonstrates the potential of using Raman Spectroscopy for a wide range of applications.
Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects. Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate level courses.
Beginning with a review of the important areas of mathematics, this book then covers many of the underlying theoretical and practical aspects of NMR and MRI spectroscopy from a maths point of view. Competence in algebra and introductory calculus is needed but all other maths concepts are covered. It will bridge a gap between high level and introductory titles used in NMR or MRI spectroscopy. Uniquely, it takes a very careful and pedagogical approach to the mathematics behind NMR and MRI. It leaves out very few steps, which distinguishes it from other books in the field. The author is an NMR laboratory manager and is sympathetic to the frustrations of trying to understand where some of the fundamental equations come from hence his desire to either explicitly derive all equations for the reader or direct them to derivations. This is an essential text aimed at graduate students who are beginning their careers in NMR or MRI spectroscopy and laboratory managers if they need an understanding of the theoretical foundations of the technique.
This book is a practical guide to help investigators choose the right experiment, carry it out properly and analyse the data to give the best reliable result. It book gives readers insights to extract what they need from the world of large scale experimental facilities like synchrotrons. Key features: * A no-nonsense introduction to the technique and applications of x-ray absorption spectroscopy * XAFS is now an everyday tool for the structural analysis of material science, biology and catalysts * Features Questions and Answers to support the student s learning through the book * Relevant to all working on synchrotron sources and applications in physics, materials, environment/geology, and biomedical materials * Four-colour representation to allow easy interpretation of images and data for the reader
This second edition of the well-established bestseller is completely updated and revised with approximately 30 % additional material, including two new chapters on applications, which has seen the most significant developments. The comprehensive overview written at an introductory level covers fundamental aspects, principles of instrumentation and practical applications, while providing many valuable tips. For photochemists and photophysicists, physical chemists, molecular physicists, biophysicists, biochemists and biologists, lecturers and students of chemistry, physics, and biology.
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